Shuffer Tonies, They Was Free Issues and Part Indian

MEMORIES OF UNCLE JACKSON, John H. Jackson, 309 S. Sixth St., Wilmington, N.C.

From Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United States from Interviews with Former Slaves (1841).

My mother was the laund’ess for the white folks. In those days ladies wore clo’es, an’ plenty of ’em. My daddy was one of the part Indian folks. My mammy was brought here from Washin’ton City, an’ when her owner went back home he sold her to my folks. You know, round Washin’ton an’ up that way they was Ginny (Guinea) niggers, an’ that’s what my mammy was. We had a lot of these malatto negroes round here, they was called ‘Shuffer Tonies’, they was free issues and part Indian. The leader of ’em was James Sampson.

For more information about the Sampson family, check out Lisa’s blog at:

This is interesting in that it not only tells us about  James Sampson, it tells us that John H. Jackson’s father was mixed Native.  I checked the 1840 census in New Hanover County, where there was no John Jackson in the 1840-1860 census, but in 1870 we find a John Jackson born in 1840 and a John H. Jackson, age 11 months in Wilmington.

Maybe someone knows more about  this John H. Jackson whose father was part Indian.  His mother was from Beaufort County, so at some point we know that his father and his mother had to be in the same proximity.  Of course, there is also the question of whether his father’s surname was Jackson, or his mothers, or neither.

About Roberta Estes

Scientist, author, genetic genealogist. Documenting Native Heritage through contemporaneous records and DNA.
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