Haplogroup C is one of two Native American male haplogroups. More specifically, one specific branch of the haplogroup C tree is Native American which is defined by mutation C-P39 (formerly known as C3b). Ray Banks shows this branch (highlighted in yellow) along with sub-branches underneath on his tree:
Please note that if you are designated at 23andMe as Y haplogroup C3e, you are probably C-P39. We encourage you to purchase the Y DNA 111 marker test at Family Tree DNA and join the haplogroup C and C-P39 projects.
It was only 11 years, ago in 2004 in the Zegura study, that C-P39 was reported among just a few Native American men in the Plains and Southwest. Since that time The American Indian DNA project, surname projects and the AmerIndian Ancestry Out of Acadia DNA projects have accumulated samples that span the Canadian and American borders, reaching west to east, so haplogroup C-P39 is not relegated to the American Southwest. It is, however, still exceedingly rare.
In August of 2012, Marie Rundquist, co-administrator of the haplogroup C-P39 DNA project performed an analysis and subsequent report of the relationships, both genealogical and genetic, of the C-P39 project members. One of the burning questions is determining how far back in time the common ancestor of all of the C-P39 group members lived.
When Marie performed the first analysis, in 2012,, there were only 14 members in the project, representing 6 different families, and they had only tested to 67 markers. Most were from Canada.
My, how things have changed. We now have more participants, more markers to work with and additional tests to bring to bear on the questions of relatedness, timing and origins.
Today, there are a total of 43 people in the project and their locations include the Pacific Northwest, Appalachia, the Southwest and all across Canada, west to east.
If you are haplogroup C-P39 or C3e at 23andMe, please join the C-P39 project at Family Tree DNA today. I wrote about how to join a project here, but if you need assistance, just let me know in a comment to the blog and Marie or I will contact you. (Quick Instructions: sign on to your FTDNA account, click on projects tab on upper left toolbar, click on join, scroll down to Y haplogroup projects, click on C, select C-P39 project and click through to press orange join button.)
Marie is preparing to undertake a new analysis and provides the following announcement:
The C-P39 Y DNA project is pleased to announce a forthcoming updated and revised project report. The C-P39 project has established a 111-marker baseline for our 2016 study and analysis will include:
- 111 marker result comparisons
- tribal / family relationships
- C P39 SNP findings
- new SNPs and Big Y results
The current C-P39 Y DNA study has a healthy diversity of surnames, geo-locations, and tribal / family lines represented.
The C-P39 Y DNA project will cover the costs of the necessary 111 marker upgrades by way of Family Tree DNA C-P39 Y DNA study project fund.
Thanks to all who have contributed to the project fund and to participants who have funded their own tests to 111 markers as part of our study. To voluntarily contribute (anonymously if you like) to the C-P39 Y DNA project funds and help our project achieve this goal, please click on the link below and please do make certain that the “C-P39 Y-DNA” pre-selected project is highlighted when you do:
Thank you to project members contributing DNA test results to the C-P39 study and for encouraging friends and relatives to do the same! Thank you also to Family Tree DNA management for their ongoing support.
The project needs to raise $3164 to upgrade all project members to 111 markers. Many participants have already upgraded their own results, for which we are very grateful, but we need all project members at the 111 level if possible.
Please help fund this scientific project if you can. Every little bit helps. I’m going to start by making a donation right now! You can make the donation in memory or in honor of someone or a particular ancestor – or you can be completely anonymous. Please click on the link above to make your contribution!!! We thank you and the scientific community thanks you.