James Logan Colbert of the Chickasaws and Allied Trader Families

The North Carolina Genealogical Society Journal, Volume XX, No.2, May 1994, pg.82 contains an article titled “James Logan Colbert of the Chickasaw, The Man and the Myth.”  This article is reproduced at this link:

http://www.angelfire.com/ok3/greybird7/genealogy.html

Colbert’s family history says that he was from Scotland and adopted as a child by the Chickasaw.  Documentation provides different information.  He was indeed raised among the Chickasaw and he did marry Native women.

The highlights relative to Native descendants and traders from the above article are extracted as follows:

During the early, mid, and late 1600s, African and West Indian slaves were sent to Virginia and bought by “white” Indian traders such as Charles HARMAR, Abraham WOOD, Benjamin HARRISON, and others.

On 7 January 1784 Alexander McGILLVRAY, the “half-breed” son of Lachlan McGILLIVRY and Sehoy MARCHAND of the Creek Indian Wind Clan, wrote a letter to Capt. Arturo O’NEIL (a French officer paid by the Spanish government to fight the Chickasaw Indians) that James COLBERT was dead:

“I had forgot to inform your Excellency in My last letter of the death of Capt. James COLBERT of the Chickasaw Nation who had been at St. Augustine, concerning demands that was made on him by the Governor of New Orleans for damages he did on the Mississippi.  He got full powers to Clear up that Complaint, & on his Way to the Chickasaw Nation three days after he left my house his horse threw him down and Killd him before his Servant could assist him.(4)”

In a secret letter written to General James WILKENSON, John DONNE described James Logan COLBERT in the following way:

“From his education and mode of life, being bred among the Indians from his infancy, it will naturally be supposed he is illiterate, which is the case, but possessed of strong natural parts. I should suppose some honorary appointment such as he had under the Crown being continued to him, would naturally lend him in our interest, and under (him) moreover an useful person to whoever might be appointed Superintendent in them Nations.”(5)

During the negotiations with DONNE and MARTIN, COLBERT asked DONNE to write a letter for him. It was written on 25 July 1783 and addressed to Governor HARRISON of Virginia. In it COLBERT reiterated his hatred of the Spanish and French and pledged his support to the Americans. His concern, he went on, was for the welfare of the Chickasaws. As for himself, he had no motives other than helping the “disturbed Condition of those people, and to serve the Country IN WHICH HE LIVES AND WAS BORN.(6)”

In the mid 1820s, according to the family tradition, Chief George COLBERT of the Chickasaws offered Lunsford ASOBROOK “one of his four barrels of silver” if he would marry one of his daughters. According to Nina LEFTWICH’s book on the history of Colbert County, Alabama:

“There is in the ALSOBROOK family today a silver medal which George COLBERT gave to Lunsford ALSOBROOK as a token of esteem and friendship which he felt for him when the spirited daughter of the old chief refused to accept the attentions and proposal of Mr. ALSOBROOK, prompted as she thought by the offer of her father. The medal was presented to COLBERT by President JEFFERSON in 1801 as a mark of appreciation for services rendered by the Chief.(11)”

Historian Gilbert C. DIN wrote; “James Logan COLBERT, a Scotsman and trader, began residence among the Chickasaw before 1740, when he was about the age of twenty.”(13) In order to determine when COLBERT began living with the Chickasaws, it was necessary to seek corroborating evidence to verify DONNE’s statement. This evidence was discovered through the writings of James ADAIR, a former Chickasaw trader. In 1775. ADAIR wrote a book about his experiences with the Five Civilized Tribes. He called it A HISTORY of the NORTH-AMERICAN INDIANS,THEIR CUSTOMS, ETC. In his chapter on the Chickasaw he wrote: “Capt.J. C-l-b-rt who has lived among the Chikkasah from his childhood, and speaks their language even with more propriety than the english, desreves to be recorded…”(14)

COLBERT married three times and had eight known children:(16)

1)Sally b.ca.1743 (first by fullblood)

2)William b.ca.1748 (second by fullblood)

3)Joseph b.ca.1750 (second by fullblood)

4)Samuel b.ca.1753 (second by fullblood)

5)Levi b.ca.1759 (second by fullblood)

6)George b.ca.1764 (second by fullblood)

7)James b.ca.1768 (third by half-blood)

8)Susan b.ca.1769 (third by half-blood)

The DRAPER COLLECTION of MANUSCRIPTS proved very useful. In 1841 Lyman DRAPER interviewed Malcolm McGEE, a former Chickasaw trader and interpreter for the Chickasaw Nations. McGEE was present with James COLBERT in the summer of 1783 at Long Island on the Holston River during the Virginia-Chickasaw negotiations with DONNE and MARTIN. Like COLBERT, McGEE had moved to the Chickasaw Nations as a small boy. That was in 1767 when he was ten years old.(17) In addition, McGee was once married to Eizabeth OXBERRY HARRIS, daughter of Christpher OXBERRY and Molly COLBERT. During the interview, McGEE was asked to describe the Indian traders who lived with the Chickasaws in 1767. McGEE described the traders by their place of birth: ADAIR, Irish; BUBBY, English; BUCKLES, English; HIGHTOWER, Dutchman; COLBERT, Carolinian. All the traders, according to McGEE, had a Chickasaw wife except COLBERT who had three. McGee deduced that the above traders had lived with the Chickasaw for over twenty years because by 1767 all of them had fullgrown “half-breed” children.

One of the first Virginia Indian traders whose property was “confiscated” because of this act [SC Indian Trader act of 1702] was Robert HICKS[Sr.]of Virginia in 1707.(18)

Using the names of “Licensed Indian traders”, a list of Virginia, North and South Carolina traders was created. A partial list includes Robert LONG, Charles HICKS, John BROWN, William GILCHRIST, Abraham COLSON, James ANDERSON, William KEMP, James MOORE, Richard HYDE, John SIMS, William WILLIAMS, and John PETTYGREW.

One of James COLBERT’s ‘hirelings’ was Richard HYDE, listed above. His father, aslo known as Richard Hyde, had also been employed by COLBERT as a packhorseman. The elder HYDE was a former pirate and member of Blackbeard’s gang. HYDE quit his life of piracy when Edward TEACH(Blackbeard) was killed in 1718.(20)

Records show that Richard HYDE and his family lived along the Roanoke River at Hyde Island. This island is a few miles upstream from Plumbtree (Mush) Island and the Occoneechee Neck.

Further research revealed a number of Chickasaw Indian traders lived along the Pee Dee River during the “off-season” at a settlement called Sandy Bluff (in present day Marion County, South Carolina). According to Harvey Toliver COOK, several North Carolina and Virginia “squatters” had lived at Sandy Bluff since the early 1730s and a substantial community had evolved by 1734.(22)

William BYRD made reference to the Pee Dee River in his book HISTORY of the DIVIDING LINE when describing the Indian Trading Path which crossed the northwest section of present day Warren County in North Carolina on its way “to the Catawbas and other southern Indians.” According to BYRD, the Pee Dee was a place “where the traders commonly lie for some days, to recruit their horses’ flesh as well as to recover their own spirits.”

Sandy Bluff was farther down the Pee Dee that the “usual” rest stop for traders. At first, it was occupied by only a few of the Chickasaw woodsmen before they proceeded to Virginia and North Carolina. Most, if not all, of these woodsmen had Indian wives and half-breed children in the Chickasaw towns they traded in. Geographically, Sandy Bluff was remote from any of the major Indian paths or large towns in South Carolina. It was considered “out-of-the-way”. In all respects, Sandy Bluff was a “self-contained isolate community”.

Richard TURBEVILLE’s will was witnessed by John HOGG, Richard CURETON, and John HATCHER. All three lived on the Roanoke River near Occoneechee Neck and Plumbtree Island. John HATCHER was a descendant of a Virginian Indian trading family. The HOGGs and CURETONs had ties with the COLBERTs.

Virginia records show that Jacob COLSON had been an Indian trader since the late 1600s. Abraham’s father, Joseph COLSON, had been a Chickasaw trader since 1721.

Four years earlier Joseph COLSON was one of the woodsmen who accompanied Major MUMFORD[MUNFORD] and William BYRD II on the expedition to THE LAND OF EDEN.

Like his grandfather and father, Abraham COLSON lived and traded among the various Indian tribes. In February of 1740, Abraham submitted two bills to the House of Commons of South Carolina for payment.

“An Account of the said Mr. Abraham COLLSON amounting to L25, it being for a Steer, and 2 Quarters of Beef & for the Use of the Indians in July 1738. Which Account having been also read to the House it was ordered that the same be referred to the Consideration of the Committee on Petitions and Accounts.(27)

“another Account of the said Mr. Abraham COLLSON amounting to the Sum of L6 for 2 Quarters of Beef for the Chactaw Indians on their traveling to Charles Town.”

As Chickasaw traders, the COLSONs and TURBEVILLESs had the means and opportunity to take James Logan COLBERT to the Chickasaw Nations as a small boy. What is more compelling, however, is that both families lived next door to the COLBERTs in North Carolina during the 1720s and 1730s.

Several settlements were granted patents or grants by the South Carolina government during the 1730s near Sandy Bluff. Queensboro was surveyed in 1733 and in 1736 a colony of Welsh Baptists from Pennsylvania was established. Unfortunately, the settlers at Sandy Bluff did not get along with their neighbors.

“In 1739 one of the petitions of the Welsh complained ‘That several Out Laws and Fugitives from the Colonies of Virginia and North Carolina most of whom are Mullatoes or of a Mixed Blood’ had thrust themselves among them, paying no taxes nor quit rents, ‘and are a Pest and Nuisance to the adjacent Inhabitants.’ They were a part of a band of robbers sought by the Virginia government, and had, so the Welsh suspected, the sympathy of some of their neighbors.”(29)

The outlaw community of mulattoes and mixedbloods continued to plague the Welsh settlements with robberies to such an extent that the governor brought out the militia. In 1746, two settlers petitioned to have their grants moved to a different location. One complained that the “robbers reduced his stock of hogs from twenty-five to six.”

In 1747, George HICKS, son of Robert HICKS, Jr., moved to the Pee Dee River near Sandy Bluff. According to the Reverend Mr. GREGG:

“In the latter part of the year previous came George HICKS, from Virginia. The family was of English descent. Being a man of means and influence, Mr. HICKS induced a number of his own relatives and others also to come with him. He became head of a large connexion on the Pee Dee. The first record of his name is in a grant of land, in the Welsh tract, January 22nd, 1747.”(30)

In 1750 the governor of South Carolina appointed George HICKS and James CRAWFORD as justices of the peace because some of the Sandy Bluff settlers were “Living very Riotous”. The problem did not subside, however, and two years later, Justice of the Peace James CRAWFORD and sixty other settlers asked the governor for permission to move to another district. By then, the mulattoes and mixed bloods had taken control of the district.

In addition to the TURBEVILLEs and COLSONs, many other families that had previously lived on the Roanoke River moved to Sandy Bluff. Among them were the GIBSONs, CHAVIS[CHAVERS], Goins[GOINGS], and SWEETs[SWEAT]. According to GREGG, Gideon GIBSON was one of the wealthiest men at Sandy Bluff. He was also a “Free Man of Color”.(31) So were the CHAVIS, GOINS and SWEAT families. All four families were related by marriage.(32)

The TUBEVILLEs were also related to the Sweat family by marriage. In 1763, William SWEAT, the son-n-law of John TURBEVILLE, was named executor of his estate. John TURBEVILLE was born in North Carolina at either Plumbtree Island or the Occoneechee Neck and was a grandson of Richard TURBEVILLE. In his will dated 3 August 1763 and probated in Charleston, South Carolina, John TURBEVILLE made provisions for his daughter Lucy SWEAT and grandson Nathan SWEAT as well as other members of his family.(33)

The GOINS family had originally come from Virginia before migrating to North and South Carolina. (Goins Island is located at Lake Gaston on the Roanoke River a few miles upriver from Hyde Island and Plumbtree Island.) CHAVIS [Chavers], on the other hand, lived on the Quankey Creek, which is below Plumbtree Island.

Gideon GIBSON had lived near the Occoneechee Neck adjacent to land owned by Arthur KAVANAUGH, Ralph MASON, and Richard TURBEVILLE before buying land on Quankey Creek from Robert LONG[LANG], a Chickasaw and Cherokee Indian trader. LONG also owned land at Elk Marsh and Plumbtree Island. LONG had received his land patents at Quankey Creek and Plumbtree Island on 1 March 1719/1720.(34)

Robert LONG and Gideon GIBSON were not the only woodsmen who lived at Quankey Creek in North Carolina. Joseph SIMS and James MOORE also lived there. Like the COLSONs and TURBEVILLEs of Plumbtree Island, these woodsmen traded with the Chickasaws. During the off-season they often rested at Sandy Bluff before returning to North Carolina. In 1732 Joseph SIMS and James MOORE witnessed the selling of land between two men from Albemarle County, North Carolina, at Quankey Creek. A third witness was James LOGAN.

“…Thomas MATTHEWS of the north west parish of Edge. Prect. in the Co. of Albermarle, planter to Joseph BREWER of Edge. Prect….16 Mar.1732 10 pounds current money of VA. 200 acres in north west parish on the south side of the Moratock river and the south side of Great Quankey Creek whereon the sd. MATTHEWS now lives, joining Peter JONES, other lands of sd. MATTHEWS, the land formerly owned by Robert WOOD and the creek part of a tract granted to William WILLIAMS for 340 acres 17 May 1730 Wit: Joseph SIMS, James LOGAN, James MOORE…”(36)

William WILLIAMS, a former owner mentioned in the above sale, had traded with the Chickasaw Nations since the early 1720s. Peter JONES had accompanied Joseph COLSON, Robert HICKS, Major MUMFORD, and William BYRD II during the survey of “Eden”.

According to COLBERT family tradition, a man named “James LOGAN” was the grandfather of James COLBERT. Given the similarity of names, plus the fact that Chickasaw traders lived at Quankey Creek, Occoneechee Neck and on Plumbtree Island, circumstantial evidence strongly suggests that this James LOGAN was indeed the grandfather of James Logan COLBERT.

Additional information on James LOGAN comes from F.B.KEGLEY in his book KEGLEY’S VIRGINIA FRONTIER. In it he describes some of the earliest settlers on “the southwest frontier below the mountains” in Virginia.

“On the south side of the James below the mountains the frontier at this time was represented by the Welsh settlement on the Mcherrin; Col.BYRD’s improvements on the Roanoke above Sandy Creek, including the three charming islands, Sapponi, Occoneechee and Totero; Major MUNFORD’s Quarter near-by; Col. BYRD’s Land of Eden on the Dan and Major MAYO’s Survey adjoining; Richard and William KENNON’s grant on Cub Creek which supplied farmsteads for John CALDWELL’s Presbyterian Colony…

“On the South eastern creeks were…Joseph COLSON at Major MUMFORD’s…and Peter MITCHELL, the highest inhabitant on Roanoke River, about six miles above the fork. Among the first to become settled on Cub Creek were John and William CALDWELL, James LOGAN…”(37)

The CALDWELLs and LOGANs had originally come from Pennsylvania before migrating to Virginia and North Carolina. In addition to settling a Presbyterian colony, several of the CALDWELLs were also Chickasaw traders. When Bernard ROMANS visited the Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians in 1775, he wrote of his accounts of an Indian trader named CALDWELL:

“One CALDWELL has the greatest stock[of cattle]; and OPAYA MINGO LUXI went in 1771 to complain of it, but CALDWELL, knowing that no savage can withstand the words of a white man, took advantage thereof, and so intimidated the savage, by his mere presence at Pensacola, when in the Superintendent’s hall, in order to lodge his information, and make his complaint that OPAYA MINGO LUXI himself said he had nothing against him…”(38)

While investigating the TURBEVILLEs, COLSONs, and LONGs, it was discovered that the family of Joseph CALVERT (pronounced kahl/vert) also lived on Plumbtree Island and owned property on the Occoneechee Neck. Deed records strongly suggest that Joseph CALVERT and Joseph COLSON were either partners and/or related to one another. On 20 March 1721 both bought property on the Morattuck River from Thomas WHITMELL, an Indian trader.(39)

Further research revealed that the TURBEVILLEs, COLSONs, and CALVERTs worked for Major Robert MUMFORD of Brunswick County, Virginia, and with Thomas WHITMELL. Major MUMFORD was a large land speculator and the descendant of an Indian trading family. The MUMFORDs had traded alongside men like Abraham WOOD, Benjamin HARRISON, Robert BOLLING, William BYRD I, Peter POYTHRESS, and Robert HICKS since the late 1600s.(42)

The TURBEVILLEs learned of the Occoneechee Neck on the Roanoke through their association with Arthur KAVANAUGH and Major Robert MUMFORD. By 1712 both KAVANAUGH and MUMFORD were large landowners in Virginia and North Carolina. KAVANAUGH began selling his North Carolina patents in 1713 and MUMFORD acted as his attorney. Thomas WHITMELL, the Indian trader, bought six hundred acres from KAVANAUGH on the north side of the Morattuck River in 1715.(43)

Before moving to North Carolina, the TURBEVILLEs sold land they owned in Prince George County, Virginia, to Peter MITCHELL, an Indian trader and land speculator. (MITCHELL lived high on the Roanoke River near the CALDWELLs and James LOGAN.) Major MUMFORD acted as Mary TURBEVILLE’s power of attorney and it was witnessed by Arthur KAVANAUGH and John ANDERSON.(44)

ANDERSON was also an Indian trader and land speculator who worked with MUMFORD. Prior to 1722, ANDERSON lived with his family on the Occoneechee Neck of the Roanoke River. Before moving to the Roanoke River and the Occoneechee, ANDERSON had lived in Prince George County, Virginia.

 

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About Roberta Estes

Scientist, author, genetic genealogist. Documenting Native Heritage through contemporaneous records and DNA.
This entry was posted in Catawba, Chickasaw, Choctaw. Bookmark the permalink.

50 Responses to James Logan Colbert of the Chickasaws and Allied Trader Families

  1. Blue Ridge Blue says:

    Thank you SO much for providing such great articles. No other site offers such in depth looks into the past as you do. I find that most(won’t say the names to avoid controversy, but you are familiar)) tend to want to gloss over and leave out vital details that make some groups uncomfortable, but the TRUTH is the most important component of all these stories if we are to get an accurate gauge on these long gone people. You are a beacon of light in a place shrouded with the fog of untruths.

  2. Thomas Robbins says:

    I had found this article once before and all it did was deepen the mystery for me. I am descended from several of these families like Poythress, Moore, Bolling, etc. and related through marriage to others like John Brown. What I am looking for is info on the Alsobrooks and how they tie into my Huntly, Cook, Mastin family? Descendants from this family ended up in Chickasaw territory in Mississippi before the removal and my direct line possibly has Sapony from Brunswick Co. If anyone has been successful in researching this dead end I would love to know your sources.

    • Richard Colbert says:

      The Alsobrooks also lived in Franklin/Warren Co’s, NC and were neighbors of my family. A Medal was given to Alsobrook family because of broken marriage agreement.

    • Richard Colbert says:

      Thomas, I am also related to the Poythress family through marriage. Brunswick Co, VA is on VA side of boundary line and was much larger before it was split. Halifax Co, NC was opposite Brunswick Co, VA. When my 5th GG Joseph died in 1737, my 4th GG Thomas Calvert/Colvard/Colbert became guardian of Joseph Colson and lived in Brunswick Co for several years before returning to Edgecombe/Halifax Co. in 1752. Joseph Colson and Joseph Calvert/Colbert lived on Plumtree Island and were next door neighbors. Joseph Colson’s brother was Abraham Colson, a registered Chickasaw trader for the British and partner of my 5th GG Joseph. Abraham became the guardian of James Colbert and lived with the Chickasaws.

  3. Jen Summer. says:

    Moore, Brown and Cook, into the Chickasaw in Mississippi I would like to explore my native contacts with you. Please email me.

  4. Thomas Robbins says:

    What’s your address? Mine thomasrobbinsjr@gmail.com

  5. Claire Hill says:

    I am trying to research the origins of the Chickasaw Colbert’s. I am trying to connect my long line of Arkansas Colbert’s with the Chickasaw Colbert’s. Has anyone figured this out yet? my email is: clairehill2014@outlook.com Thank you.

    • Richard Colbert says:

      Claire: My 5GG Joseph Calvert/Colbert was the father of James Colbert of the Chickasaw Nations. My 4th GG Thomas was his brother. Both were born on Plumtree Island in NC on Roanoke River adjacent to town of Weldon, Halifax Co, NC. My family has gone under the surnames Calvert, Colvard, and Colbert since 1636.

      • sally bugg says:

        I AM VERY INTEREST IN THE COLBERTS , MY GENEOLOGY WAS PARTLY DONE BY DON MARTINI , STATES JAMES LOGAN COLBERT WAS BORN IN SCOTLAND , COULD YOUS SEND ME MORE INFO. PLEASE , SALLY BUGG

  6. V.E.G. says:

    By the way, Laurel Margaret Harper was a descendant of a Chickasaw!

    • Richard A. Colbert says:

      I wrote the article re: James Colbert of the Chickasaws. There is a second part which was printed in Feb 1995 issue. I met Don Martini over twenty years ago and I showed him documents which proved that James Colbert was born “in the Carolina’s.” But by then Don had already written several books on the Chickasaws and the other Civilized Tribes. I own several of his books.
      rchrd_clbrt@yahoo.com

  7. Leon Colbert says:

    I’m Leon Colbert my 5th great grand father was General William Colbert brother to George and Levi Colbert.
    Richard Colbert is correct James Logan Colbert was born in Carolina.
    My grandfather Willis Colbert was one of the original signers for the federal govt to rcongnize the Poarch Creek Indians he also sat on the first council.
    I live in South Alabama a member of the Poarch Band my ancestry is open on Ancestry.com.

    • Richard Allen Colbert says:

      Hello Leon:
      I’m glad you liked my article re: James Colbert. My cousin Pete (age 89) and his family still live in Franklin Co, NC — 50 miles west of Plumtree (Mush) Island on the Roanoke River. My family moved from Plumtree Island (Halifax Co, NC) to Bute (Franklin/Warren) Co, NC in 1768.
      I’ve lived in Birmingham, AL for the past 25 years, but I’m thinking about moving back to Franklin Co. I retired a couple of years ago and think it’s time to return to my roots.
      I stopped paying for Ancestry.com service several years ago, but next time I go to the Birmingham library I’ll check your family tree.
      If you’re interested in learning more about James Colbert’s ancestors, I’ll be happy to give you all the information I have. My 7th GG Christopher Calvert moved to Accomack Co, VA in 1636 from England (not Scotland).
      Our family has gone under the surnames Calvert, Colvard, and Colbert plus other variations since Christopher landed in VA. Many of the families that originally lived in Accomack Co, VA in the 1600’s ended up in Franklin Co, NC in the late 1700’s and still live there.
      We have quite a few cousins who live in Alabama under the Colvard name who are like me (not Native Americans). We also have blue eyes, inherited from our ancestor Christopher Calvert.
      Since we both live in Alabama, perhaps we can get together some day. I’d like that.
      Over the years I’ve come across several members of the Poarch Creeks who claim to be related to me, but they don’t use the Colbert surname.
      Hope to hear from you soon.
      Richard
      rchrd_clbrt@yahoo.com

    • Thomas Robbins says:

      Thanks for your input. I am from the Cooks and maybe the Alsobrooks. My family ended up in Chickasaw territory but were not removed later and stayed in Miss and Ala. but later generations moved to Texas. Ihave been trying to figure out the relationship my family had with the Colberts, and to deepen the mystery, I now have dna match to a Colbert.

      • Richard Colbert says:

        Thomas,Which Colbert do you have a DNA match to?My cousin Pete Colbert has GEDmatch  F153221.  Mine is F130958. We are also with Family Tree DNA. The Alsobrook’s were neighbors of my family in Halifax Co, NC in 1700’s.  Richard Colbert

      • Thomas Robbins says:

        I matched to F152132 Pete Colbert

      • Thomas Robbins says:

        I found a different kit for a Richard Colbert. T730638 and I match it 14.5 cM. Is this you Richard? It has the same address.

      • Richard Colbert says:

        Hello Thomas,
        The answer is yes. GEDmatch changed the kit numbers of Family Tree DNA. They assigned brand new numbers starting with the letter “T’.
        I’m still trying to understand how autosomal (atDNA) works. We are related, but I’m not sure where the connection starts — North Carolina, Texas, or with the Chickasaw Nations.
        Richard

  8. Joseph R Colbert says:

    How do I get a GED DNA test, my Grandfather David Colbert was Chickasaw and my Grandmother Susan Gibson was Creek. They had 1 child, my father Riley Colbert.

    • First, read this article about how DNA testing for genealogy works. Then, order the appropriate tests from Family Tree DNA. http://dna-explained.com/2012/10/01/4-kinds-of-dna-for-genetic-genealogy/

    • Richard Allen Colbert says:

      If your father, Riley Colbert, is alive he can take y-DNA kit from Family Tree DNA and his results will be cross-checked with other Colbert, Colvard, and Calvert male members belonging to Calvert Genealogy Group. I suggest he take either the y-DNA-67 kit or the y-DNA-111 kit. If Riley has a son, I suggest he also take the test. AND, if you can persuade other male Chickasaws with the Colbert surname who are cousins, etc, and whose original bloodline came from James Colbert (1720-1784) of the Chickasaws, they should also take the test. If they all match, it’s prove positive.

      One more thing. The progenitor James Colbert was NOT a Native American. Therefore, his Haplogroup and those of his direct-male Colbert descendants will be different from full-blood Chickasaws.

      I am taking additional Haplogroup/SNP tests from Family Tree DNA and the results should be ready sometime between March 9 and March 23, 2016.

      At the present time, my Haplogroup/SNP is M269+ > P311+. I am a also U106- ( negative).

      Tests I am now waiting on are for P312 and L21.

  9. Richard Allen Colbert says:

    I recommend Riley and his son(s) take either the y-DNA-67 or y-DNA-111 kits from Family Tree DNA. I also suggest you become a member of Calvert Genealogy Group. This group maintains records of y-DNA from surnames Calvert, Colbert, Colvard, etc. This will allow you to double-check your results with other members.

    Also remember that the progenitor James Colbert was NOT a Native American. His direct-male Colbert descendants will not have a Haplogroup/SNP which indicates they were Native American/Chickasaw.

    Family Tree DNA has program to check your Haplogroup/SNP if you are interested in knowing.

    • Joseph Road Colbert says:

      I have seen my father since 1945, currently he would be 97 years old, so I don’t think that he is alive. I was very his only child that I know of,from what I could find out my grandfather’s mother was Native American, and I know my grandfather was full blood cheek. Thanks you for yourhelp.

  10. Richard Allen Colbert says:

    Joseph Road Colbert:
    There is nothing preventing you from taking a y-DNA-67 test. Plus, if you have any male sons they can take the test, too. Autosomal tests are also available to check who your distant cousins are on both your mother’s and father’s side of family.
    Richard

  11. jason swaim says:

    Richard, I matched both you and Pete. My Gedmatch is A233446. I set the threshold at 4. Now, my family has been here for a very long time (some of the very first colonists), so I do not know if it is a match from another ancestor or not. However, I am showing matches to people who have DNA matches to William Weatherford as well. There may be Creek Indian in my line, and I have an Idea who they are, but there is not much to go on. I do have a couple of their Indian names, but no one knows their lineage. Some say they are Cherokee others say they are both Creek and Cherokee. I also have an indirect relative that may have a direct link to William Weatherford, however if my genealogy is correct we are only linked by marriage that I know of. Would be interested in comparing family trees. Do you have one at Ancestry or Gedmatch I could view?

    • Jason,
      It’s nice to hear from you. I used to have a family tree at Ancestry.com, but I don’t know if it still exists. I haven’t used their service in over five years. I left them because many of the family trees on their site were inaccurate. What’s more, others copied their family trees without bothering to do any research to see if they were correct or not. After I wrote the article on James Colbert, others claimed that their line; i.e, William Blainville Colbert, was the father of James Colbert of the Chickasaws. I contacted the person who made that assertion 10 years ago and asked if he had proof. He had none. I then challenged him to take a y-DNA test and compare it to mine. He refused.
      However, the person who claimed to be a descendant of James Colbert still wrote that James Colbert had been born on Plumtree Island, which is what I wrote in my article. I was the first person to ever disclose that James had been born in NC and not Scotland.
      My family is not from Scotland. In fact, the progenitor of my family was transported from England to Accomack County, VA in 1636 by William Bibby. His name was Christopher Calvert. He is mentioned in Ella Foy O’Gorman’s book “Descendants of the Virginia Calverts.” as well the family of “William Calvert/Colvard of Chesterfield.” The male descendants of William and Temperance Colvard of Chesterfield Co also have the exact DNA of my cousin Pete Colbert and myself. Pete lives in Franklin County, NC. Our family has lived there since 1768. Descendants of the Bibby and Pinnell families also live there. Our three families have been together since our ancestors lived in Accomack Co.
      Many of the matches that Pete and I have on Family Tree DNA Family Finders and GEDmatch are families that originally lived in Accomack County, VA in the 1600’s.
      Another family that lived in Accomack County were the Colson’s. They were neighbors of Christopher Calvert and they were also Indian traders. Jacob Colson, born 1668 and had a son named Abraham Colson who was a registered Chickasaw trader with the British and was a partner of my 5th GG Joseph Calvert/Colbert. When Joseph died in 1736/7, Abraham Colson became the guardian of James Colbert and took James with him to live among the Chickasaws. My 4th GG Thomas Calvert/Colbert lived with Abraham’s brother Joseph Colson who also lived on Plumtree Island. Joseph Colson was also an “overseer” for William Byrd II of Virginia. Byrd sent a caravan of supplies to the Chickasaw Nations in 1720. My 5th GG Joseph and Abraham Colson were among two of the traders who traveled in the Expedition which was headed by Capt. Robert Hix/Hicks of VA. Byrd is also noted for his book “Histories of the Dividing Line betwixt Virginia and North Carolina” which happened in 1728.
      Joseph and Abraham had another brother named William who had a daughter named Mary. My 4th GG Thomas married Mary Colson and they lived in the Town of Halifax in Halifax Co, NC.
      My family tree goes like this as best I know: I don’t think there are any mistakes, but I’m not 100% sure.

      7th Great-grandparents: Christopher Calvert b. c. 1611 d. 1682 m. Elinor Odait of Accomack Co.

      6th Great-grandparent: John Calvert b. c. 1660 d. c. 1710 and (… ) Bradford of Accomack Co.

      5th Great-grandparents: Joseph Calvert/Colbert and Dorothy Vernon. Married on Plumtree Island. Dorothy’s parents were Francis and Amy Beason Vernon. They also lived on Plumtree Island. Joseph died between 1736 and 1737. Dorothy Calvert died March 1739.

      4th Great-grandfather: Thomas Calvert/Colvard/Colbert b. c, 1721 Plumtree Island, NC d. Franklin Co, NC 1785. (Was a member of Bute Co. Safety Committee during the Amer. Revolution and fought the British at “The Great Bridge” at Norfolk, VA and Moore’s Creek in Dec 1775 under Col Nicholas Long. This was seven months before War was declared). His first wife was Mary Colson. They were married between 1751 and 1768. She died in Town of Halifax. Second wife Sarah Stokely/Stokely . Her family also lived in Accomack Co, VA. and were neighbors of Christopher Calvert. Mary Colson was my 4th GG.

      I have been a member of the SAR (Sons of American Revolution) since 1992 under names Thomas Colbert and John Pinnell.

      3rd Great-grandparents Thomas Colvard/Colbert b .c. 1765 and d. 1846 and Vashty Pinnell. My 9th GG John Pannell/Pinnell was transported to Accomack County, VA in 1641. The Calvert/Colbert, Bibby, and Pinnell families have been together for 375 years. 380 years if you just count the Calvert and Bibby’s.

      2nd Great-grandparents. Ira Joe Colbert b. 1799 d. 1877 in Lamar Co, TX. Married Mary (Polly) Cooper of Franklin Co, NC on April 23, 1822. [I was born on April 23].

      1st Great-grandparents. Joseph Levi Colbert. b. 1836 NC. d. 1920 Hunt Co, TX. Joseph Levi fought in Civil War.

      Grandparents: Joseph Richard Colbert and Nancy Ellen McCarty. Both born and raised in TX.

      Families I’m related to on the Calvert/Colvard/Colbert side: Stockley/Stokely, Bradford, Parker, Batson, Colson, Sipple, Hall, Pleasants, Burton, Davis, Robins, Randolph, Isham Thomas Jefferson, Holland, Merryman, Vannoy/Vanoy, Pinnell, Cooper, Hollingsworth, Faulkner, Leonard, plus more.

      A couple of years ago CeCe Moore, the geneticist, contacted me about my families connection to President Thomas Jefferson. We were connected through the Hemings family.

      GEDmatch also shows I am a distant cousin to families related to the Creeks.

      Hope this helps. Feel free to contact me if you have any other questions.

      Sincerely,
      Richard A. Colbert

      • jason swaim says:

        Hi Richard,
        Thanks for the response. One of the names you mentioned “Hicks” I do relate to. I read they were traders. I have a Charlotte Hicks in my line that is very difficult to research. They lived in Granville, NC. She may be part Cherokee, but not sure. The Hicks family is mixed, and is very difficult to figure out the ones that are and are not mixed. I do not recognize any other names you mentioned. Would you know of any other Gedmatch users that have Creek ancestry? I would like to compare mine to as many as possible. I found a few yesterday like I mentioned that claim to relate to the Colberts, McIntosh and to the William Weatherford. I showed positive DNA matches to all three. I am wondering if there is a common ancestor between Weatherford’s, McIntosh’s and Colberts that link us, be it White or Creek? Do you have a family tree on Gedmatch?

    • Thomas Robbins says:

      I have high SNP matches with Pete, as much as 14, and I had to lower value matches with Richard. Still trying to understand this DNA stuff. I ran your kit with mine on GEDmatch on the one to one and we match as high as 5.8. My kit is M447469. I match a lot of distant cousins who are current tribal members with just about every tribe in NC, as well as many colonial families. A lot of those are through the King family. One line of my ancestors ended up in Chickasaw territory before the removal. My Huntley/ Hundley and Ashcraft lead back to the Cook and Alsobrook, who were associated with Colbert, and to a Oholobamah, who is believed to be Sapponi. My Bennett ancestor, also had deed to land in Chickasaw territory, may be a Chowanoke. I am currently working on that line and match DNA with some other Bennett descendants who are known Chowanoke. I am currently considered a member of a Tuscarora group in NC where Swaim is considered and founding core name and is also sometimes written Swain, but may just be coincidental. The reason I included rabbit trails, is because a lot of people do not think of other tribal groups on the east coast in their research because they have never heard of them. Most know of the Powhatan confederacy but do not know the lesser tribes that make it up. I have Nancemound from Powhatan because when the confederacy was broken, the Tuscarora took in some of their stragglers.

      • jason swaim says:

        Hi Thomas,
        Funny, I am talking with a Jimmie Robbins out of Oklahoma, he relates to the Swaims. He says he has some Creek blood. He is trying to set up a GEDmatch.com account so we can compare. I tried to compare your kit to mine and I could not get a match, I even lowered the threshold to 4. I do relate to some Kings out of North Carolina, but have little information to go on with them. My Kings ended up marrying Splawns. Who are suspect of being part Cherokee or another tribe. They lived both near the North Carolina Cherokee reservation and later near the Oklahoma Cherokee reservation. I would definitely, like to know more about the Kings. I do know at least one of the Splawns married a Cherokee or Creek woman while in Oklahoma, and their children are on the rolls. However, my uncle is not on the rolls. As for the other tribes, yes I am learning that there were alot more tribes that relatives could have come from. I believe most people associate to Cherokee because they do not know of the other tribes. I have direct ancestors, that may relate to the Powhattan, on not one but both maternal and paternal sides of my family. However, I am not 100% sure of being directly related.. Chances are pretty good, and they were definitely in the family, being at the very least cousin’s, aunts, and uncles. I do relate to a family that is difficult to research with the surname Condry. There are many spellings of it, including Condra, Condreay, etc.. They lived around Grainger Tenn, in the late 1700’s. They were said to be part Creek and Cherokee. One of my Aunts, was rumored to have been the mother of Jackson Barnett, who was known as the Worlds richest Indian. Her information was deposed in court cases regarding the estate of Jackson Barnett. This is after my Aunt died. It was determined that she was not the mother, but it did state in court that she was half Creek. Other members of the Condry family went round and round with the Dawes Commission, with many pages of testimony stating they were Cherokee. They even had 3 Cherokee witnesses state that in fact they had known them before the move to Oklahoma, and they were known as Cherokee, even providing Indian names. One of the witnesses was named John Ross. They were still denied, however some were given citizens ship through married to other Cherokee. One of my Condry relatives also fought under Stand Waite in the 1st Cherokee Mounted Rifles. It is pretty confusing, but I figured that they tried to blend in, in Tennessee, so they did not have to take the trail of tears, and were probably more Creek than Cherokee. When they finally decided to go to Oklahoma and make their claim they were too late.
        Thanks,
        Jason

  12. Thomas Robbins says:

    Jimmie Robins of Ponca is my cousin. We only recently connected. His great grandfather William Berry Robins Jr. is my 3rd great grandfather Reuben George Robins. He said there was Indian blood on the Robbins/Robins side. Wasn’t sure what he meant.
    My 6th great grandfather Thomas Turner married Charity Swaim in Rowan, NC. Their daughter married Reuben Robins, my 5th g g.
    The Kings are on my grandma Patman’s side who married my grandpa George Thomas Robbins Jr. Two King brothers came down from NC to Georgia with other mix breed families. My 3rd gg Isabel King married Jeptha Dean then went on to Alabama, Louisiana, and they are buried here in Texas.

    I lowered the thresholds to 2 cM and 200 snps to pick up our matches. You got to go low on both or you miss things. We were at 5.8 at 289 snps on chromosome 9 at the highest.

    • You’re going to get a lot of false positives or IBC matches at 2 cm. go to my other blog at http://www.dna-explained.com and Google IBC. I recently wrote an article about this.

      • jason swaim says:

        I typically only go to 4, but Thomas and I should be related through the Swaims, although I am not so sure the Swaim’s would have any relation to the Colberts on my side. If they do, it is possibly further back. My grandmothers side that married the Swaim’s could though. Her last name was Cooley, and she relates to the Ayers, Howards, and Crumps. Also, lot’s of Browns, Ellis, Selph and Hicks on her side, related to the Indian Traders John Brown and the Hicks Traders. However, I would think they would be related to tribes further north like the Cherokee and others, if they are. I matched Pete Colbert with 4.3 cent. and 770 SNP’s on Chr. 3, and Richard Colbert at 4.4 cent. and 700 SNP’s on Chr. 7, I am wondering what that could indicate. I am new to the DNA as well, so SNP’s I do not understand yet. I do understand the higher the centimorgans the better the connection, but no much else. Still learning.

      • Thomas Robbins says:

        I am also related to the Indian traders you indicated through marriages. The Indian traders I descend from are Poythress, Pace, Ashcraft, and a number of others thought to be so as well. If you wish, I can be reached at thomasrobbinsjr@gmail.com I am also related to a ton of Native families on the east coast, including Cherokee.

      • Thomas:
        The centimorgans 4.3 cM and 4.4 cM that you share with Pete and me are extremely low. But it doesn’t necessarily mean we aren’t related. I have a cousin in Warren County NC who is a Pinnell and his mother is a Poythress. My family as well as others along the VA/NC border have been around so long we probably are related to just about everyone else somehow.

        I don’t know if this will help you or not, but how far back have you researched your Robbins’ line?
        My family has been associated with the Robins family from Accomack Co. VA since my 7th GG Christopher Calvert came to America in 1636. Maybe before then. The Robins families of Accomack and Gloucester counties VA and Somerset and Worchester counties MD are descendants of Richard Robins II of Northamptonshire, England. On 1 Mar 1633 he wrote his Last Will and Testament and gave the bulk of his estate to his four sons Obedience, Edward, John and Thomas Robins. They moved to America and obtained huge tracts of land and raised large families. My family is connected to Obedience Robins. He was one of the Commissioners of Accomack Co, VA. Christopher bought 800 acres from Sampson Robins in 1655. Not sure if he is related to Obedience or not. William Calvert of York Co VA married Temperance Robins ca. 1629/30. William and Temperance’s sons have the same y-DNA I have.

      • Thomas Robbins says:

        Jimmie Lee Robins of Oklahoma has traced the Robins out I believe I am from. I can only prove with documentation back to my 3rd g granfather Reuben George Robins/Robbins of Benton Co. Ark. Hand written notes from my great grandfather have the same siblings as Jimmie’s William Berry Robins Jr.

      • Thomas Robbins says:

        Oooh. You got that wrong. My match with you is low but my match with Pete is much, much higher. High enough to show up on gedmatch as a cousin, like the 20cM range.

    • jason swaim says:

      If you are related to Charity we should match. My uncle just had a Y DNA test to find out if our last name is actually Swaim. According to the results, it is. However, my GG grandfather died in a Union Civil War Camp, and according to the dates was away for over 11 months before he died. The Swaim project founders were surprised as I was that our DNA is showing up as Swaim. So, I am guessing some of the dates or B-Day to my Great Grandfather were off a bit. There was a Bastardy Bond filled for my Great Great Grandmother, Wish I could find a copy. I am guessing it was because my Great Great Grandfather Solomon Davis Swaim was MIA. Have you submitted your DNA to the Swaim project?
      Also, I relate to some Ayers, Crump, and Howard families that lived near the Chickasaw. They had land in the Chickasaw nation before the removal and trail of tears. The US govt. took them to court and forced them off. I think one of the Chickasaw Colberts married an Ayers, however I do not think it was my direct line, it was a cousin or aunt. I don’t know much about the Ayers or Crump family though, or what type of relationship they had with Chickasaw, or if they themselves were part. It is interesting they were living and owning Chickasaw land before the removal. It is said, they bought the lands from the Chickasaws. Moses Ayers was buried in Ackerman, Choctaw County, Miss. around 1841, some say 1829.
      As for the Kings, I do not know much about them at all. I have a Priscilla Jane King 1842 – 1920 married to Edmond Splawn. Her father is supposed to be a George King, but I do not know for sure. I have read that Kings Mountain could be named for this family, but again it is just a guess for now.
      I relate to the Isbell and Summers family as well, they are known as the first families of Alabama. So, I am sure they interacted with the Creeks, Choctaw, and maybe Chickasaw. There are lots of blanks and unknown ancestors in my family tree from these early days, so there is really no telling who might connect to the Colberts.
      Thanks,
      Jason

      • Jason,
        I think you will find that most Native Americans do not take y-DNA or autosomal tests. For one thing, it’s not required. In fact, it’s even frowned upon by leaders of the different tribes.
        Another thing. If a person was a direct line descendant of, for instance, James Colbert or William Weatherford and they took a y-DNA test, it would indicate that their family heritage came from England, etc. and not Native Americans. y-DNA testing goes from male to male to male.
        Also, in autosomal DNA, the recombination of chromosomes gets smaller and smaller with each generation. Trying to find an ancestor from 7 or 8 generations ago would be impossible and probably would not indicate if that person’s ancestor was Native American or not.

      • jason swaim says:

        I do know that Ancestry says their Native DNA sampling is only from 31 people. If you read their documentation. So, I know there is a limited database to compare. Makes sense. I took the Ancesty.com test which is Autosomal I believe, my uncle took the FTDNA Y 32, just for the Swaim Family project. So, I guess it could makes sense if Thomas Robbins does not match for a Y DNA test, since he is through a female Swaim. However, just for the record, my uncles Y DNA has only been uploaded to the Swaim DNA project. I have my uncles Y DNA data on file, but Gedmatch I do not think has a way to upload a Y DNA test, maybe there is somewhere else to upload??? Thomas did mention we do have some sort of DNA connection. Maybe through my Autosomal? I seem to have one with you and Pete as well. I am curious as to where we connect? I did have an uncle that lived on the Chickasaw reservation in the early 1900’s, Howard Kennedy (Cannady) and owned 7 lots of land. He was not on the rolls, but was on the 1900 census.. He did not claim Chickasaw either, but claimed to be 1/4 Cherokee. His family was in Arkansas around 1840. I also had a maternal relative live on the Cherokee reservation, that had children that were on the rolls. They were the Splawns. Lula and Luther. I will include a link below. However, I would think it would be some ancestor further back, if I am connected to the Colberts. Someone in Alabama, Miss., Tenn., or Arkansas. If they are a Native connection. Could be someone from England, Ireland, or Scotland, that we distantly relate to as well. Which add to the difficulty. There are definite holes in my family tree to several of these relatives in these areas. Several of my direct ancestors were in Miss., Ala., Tenn., Kentucky, NC, SC, Georgia, and other Western and Southern Territories pre removal, and I still have several folks in my tree Missing. There are many we have little if any evidence of their names. By the way I am working with some Weatherfords, on another link as well. I do have a connection to the Weatherfords, that I discovered. I knew I had a Aunt, that only relates by marriage to the Weatherfords, but did not think I would be related directly. However, my DNA is matching to several Weatherfords, sometimes on two Chromosomes. We are working though it, as well. It could end up going back to Europe, but the marriage to a Mary CupBoard is strange. Some say she is part Shawnee. Anyhow, here is the Splawn link I promised. I also have a photo of James as well. http://www.genealogy.com/forum/surnames/topics/splawn/255/

  13. Thomas Robbins says:

    I am also from the Cook, who are somehow related to Alsobrook.

  14. Cathy Ellis says:

    My Dad is an Ellis, directly descended from Eleazer Ellis of Tuckahoe Creek, Henrico, VA, born c 1780. Eleazer’s wife was Jane Nuckols of Goochland, VA. They left for KY c 1800 after 100 years in Henrico. Eleazer’s father was John Ellis. I landed on this page as I’ve been researching the two John Ellis’s (father and son) who were Indian traders and involved in William Byrd’s border survey expeditions. Hard to tell which John Ellis is which, my best guess is that the elder John Ellis on this expedition was the brother of my 5th great-grandfather. I’m going to Y-DNA test my Dad soon, and have him join the Ellis DNA project, which should help us figure these lines out. In the meantime, Dad’s Gedmatch kit is M687195 if anyone wants to take a look. We seem to be linked to most everyone with colonial VA roots, and I do see small matches to Jason, Pete, Richard and Thomas. No family stories of Native American links, but have since come to understand that many of us with colonial VA/NC roots do have some NA DNA. In our case, it is tiny, trace amounts that were a complete surprise. Believe my people were yeoman farmers, living near the Randolph, Jefferson, and Cabell lands — gentry families with known Powhatan links. Clues and commentary most welcome!

    • Richard Colbert says:

      Hello Cathy: According to the geneticist Ce Ce Moore, my family is also connected to the Randolph and Jefferson families, specifically to Thomas Jefferson/Hemings. A branch of my Colbert/Colvard family lived adjacent Monticello. Ben Colbert, Jr. worked as a carpenter for Thos. Jefferson at Monticello.

      • Just to clarity, CeCe Moore is not a geneticist. I don’t believe she has any degree at all. She is a genetic genealogist, using DNA for genealogy.

      • jason swaim says:

        I have a connection to the Randolph family as well. Mary Randolph who married Charles Lewis is my 6th Great Grandmother. Some of the Randolphs are related to Pocahontas.

    • jason swaim says:

      Hi Cathy,
      We may be related to the same Ellis family. Does Richard Wiggins Ellis and Charlotte Hicks ring a bell? His father is supposed to be John Ellis 1710 – 1793 and mother Mary Lane Wiggins. I ran a one to one on gedmatch with your dads DNA, and had to lower it down quite a bit to show any connection, so not sure if that would be noise or an connection.

  15. Thomas Robbins says:

    I have ties to the Powhantan confederacy. Ellis and Nuchols, and all the variant spellings are tribal names found among the different tribes in NC. We have several as Ellis descendants at the SBT.

  16. JTammie Johnson says:

    I am a descendant of Loves, Terry or Tyre, Gibson, Graham and Clements for north Alabama located on Big Nance Creek that feeds into the Tennessee River at Double Heads Town also am directly across from Browns Ferry in Limestone Co Al. Have hit a brick wall in my research…I have Rebecca Love born 1816 in Ala to Joseph Terry born 1806 North Carolina / S.Carolina,Ga. or ? I think he was the son of an Indian named Jesse or William Rowland Tyre. Think Rebecca is a descendant of Thomas Love Married Sally Colbert. I keep finding Love family names from /South carolina /Virginia Tennessee( the eastern counties on the Tennessee River running through my Terry family but have yet to find out how they fit. I live in the area of all the Chickasaw lands that border the river and my family has been here since the first census. Was hoping in your digging you may have come across my Terry family. Thank you so much for the article it has been the best source of info i have found as of yet on the Colbert and would love to see any thing you have added since the article. Thank you Tammie

  17. Richard Colbert says:

    I noticed in description that William D’Blainville Colbert was the father of James Colbert. Wrong. James Colbert was born on Plumtree Island. The land was purchased by my 5th GG Joseph Calvert/Colbert. There is no record of any William D’Blainville in NC or anywhere else. I also do not understand why the Haplogroup C3* is written next to article I wrote back in 1994 is there. James Colbert was not a Native American. His male y-DNA haplogroup is R-Z16502. All direct male descendants of James Colbert should have the same haplogroup — R-Z16502. This haplogroup is rare and is only found in England in three locations: Northamptonshire, Bedford and Derby. It is also found in Accomack Co, VA. That is because hundreds of families that lived in Northamptonshire were persuaded to move to Accomack Co. by one of the Commissioners of Accomack Co named Obedience Robins who was also born in Northamptonshire. Over a 35-year period he made countless trips back and forth across the Atlantic to recruit families and individuals to America.

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