This is a list of the resources I’ve accessed so far.  If you have other resources of documents to contribute, please contact me.

Please note that inclusion on this list does not constitute endorsement of the resource.  It only means that I’ve accessed this resource for this project.

1832 Creek Census – Parsons and Abbott Roll

1836 Census of Ottawa and Chippewa Halfbreeds (Michigan) and

1887 Croatan Petition for Separate Schools

1888-1891 New York Indian Census, National Archives original documents digitized by Ancestry

The American Indian in North Carolina by the Rev. Douglas L. Rights

Bertie County: An Eastern Carolina History by Arwin D. Smallwood

A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia by Thomas Hariot, published in 1588 – Paul Heinegg’s site

A Geographical Analysis of White-Negro-Indian Racial Mistures in the Eastern United States by Edward T. Price,Los Angeles State College

A List of the Mob Raitously Assembled together in Bladen County, October 13, 1773:

A New Voyage to Carolina by John Lawson (1709)

A Note on the Melungeons, by Swan Burnett, read  February 5th of 1889 before the Society of American Anthropologists, later published.

A report on Research of Lumbee Origins by Robert K. Thomas, unpublished, written after 1976, probably about 1980.  Thomas died in 1991.

A Report on the Racial Status of Certain People in Robeson County, NC by Carl Seltzer, 1936.

A Summary and True Discourse of Sir Francis Drake’s West-Indian Voyage: Accompanied with Christopher Carleill, Martin Frobusher, Francis Knollis (1652) wherein were taken the Townes of Saint Jago,Santo Domingo,CartagenaandSaint Augustine, printed at London for Nicholas Bourne, dwelling at the south entrance of the Royall Exchange, 1652.

A True Relation of such occurrances and accidents of noate as hath hapned in Virginia since the first planting of the colony by Capt. John Smith.

Against the Peace and Dignity of the State,North Carolina Laws Regarding Slaves, Free Persons of Color and Indians by William L. Byrd, III

American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492 by Russell Thornton (1987)

Annals of Augusta Co,Va.

Annals of the Ashpole Community 1750 – 1814

Articles of Agreement with the Bay (Bear) River Indians

Bay River Road Petition

Beaufort Co., NC Court Records

Beaufort/Hyde Co. NC 1715 Corn Tax List

The Berry site and Upper Catawba Valley Archaeology                  

Bertie Co., NC Genweb

Carlisle Indian School Records through Dept of the Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Carlisle Indian School. (1879 – 1918)

Carteret Co., NC Court Records

Catawba Indian Genealogy by Ian Watson

The Catawba Indians: The People of the River by Douglas Summers Brown

Catawba Native American History

The Catawba Tribe of Indians,Feb. 1897, U.S. Senate Document #144, written by Dr. Joseph McDowell in 1872

Census Records through and other sources for 1790 Free People of color in NC and SC

Census Records for 1900 reflecting Indian designation

Cheraw, SC – A Brief History of Cheraw

Cherokee Communities of the South by Robert K. Thomas

Cherokee Nation West Census (Indian Territory) 1869

Cherokee Citizenship File, August 14, 1871, No. 460. Indian Archives, Oklahoma Historical Society. Shawnee Tribe Indians who moved to Indian Territory and registered in the Cherokee Nation prior to June 10, 1871

Choptank Indians –

Chowan Co., NC Court Records

Chowan website –

Chronology of significant events in the history of Robeson County Indians

Colonial and State Records of NC

Colonial Records of North Carolina, North Carolina State Archives, Miscellaneous Records in the Office of Secretary of State

Colonial Records of North Carolina, Second Series – Volume VII – Records of the Executive Council – 1674-1734, (Editor Robert Cain, Department of Cultural Resources Division of Archives and History, Raleigh, North Carolina 1984) on pages 167-169, a petition from the Meherrin asking to have land surveyed for a reservation.  This petition is followed by a second claiming that the Meherrin aren’t who they claim to be.

Coastal Carolina Indians –

Common-Place, Vol 5, #1, october 2004                                          

The Coree

Craven County NC Deeds and Apprenticeship Records

Craven Co., NC, It’s Origin and Beginning, by Dr. Charles Holloman

Croatan Indian Petition to Congress, 1887

The Croatan Indians of Sampson County,NC.  Their Origin and Racial Status. A Plea for Separate Schools by Butler, George Edwin, 1868-1941

Currituck Co., NC Genweb

“The Dartmouth Indians,” article by Eric Kelly, published in the Dartmouth Alumni Magazine in December, 1929, 22:2:122-125.

“The Dartmouth Indians, 1800-1893” article by Leon B. Richardson published in the June, 1930 edition of the Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 222:8:524-527

Delaware, Sussex Co. Tax lists –

Description of Virginia by John Smith

Digital Library on American Slavery

The Discoveries of John Lederer in Three Several Marches from Virginia, to the West of Carolina, and Other Parts of the Continent Begun March 1669, and Ended in September 1670 by John Lederer

Digging the Weapemeocs by Tom Parramore, Emeritus, Meredith College

Dillon, Brenda – Timeline

Early Croatian Contacts with America and the Mystery of the Croatans; Were some Croats Present at Discovery of America? By George J. Prpic, 1960, Journal of Croatian Studies

Emmet Co., Michigan, Native American Death Index  1867-1875

Everything Elks by Roberta Estes

ECU Field Station for Coastal Carolina Studies at Mattamuskeet

Excavating Ocaneechi Town

The Final Determiniation for the Golden Hill Paugussett Tribe

Families of Interest Index – Private database – Roberta Estes

The Finding of Raleigh’s Lost Colony by Alexander Hume Ford, July 1907, Appleton’s Magazine

The First Colonists, Documents on the Planting of the First English Settlements in North America 1548-1590 edited with an introduction by David B. Quinn and Alison M. Quinn

The Five Lost Colonies of Dare by Mary Wood Long

Foltera Fort Notes

Forgotten Patriots: African American and American Indian Patriots in the Revolutionary War by the  DAR

Forgotten Patriots: African American and American Indian Patriots in the Revolutionary War – Supplement 2008-2011 by the DAR

Fort Christanna

Free People of Color: Free Negroes, Indians, Portuguese and Freed Slaves by Mary B. Kegley, 2003

From Nansemond to Monacon: The Legacy of the Pochick-Nansemond among the Bear Mountain Monacon by Jay Hansford C. Vest (American Indian Quarterly, Summer/Fall 2003, Vol 21, No 3 and 4)

The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles by Capt. John Smith, London: Michael Sparks, 1624

Goins, Jack

Guion Miller Roll Applications (Eastern Cherokee) plus Enrollments and Applications of the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek & Seminole) – From the website of Kathie M. Donahue, AG, viable in 2011 defunct in 2012.

Halifax County Minutes, County Court, 1847-1865 – A Minute of the Free Papers issued to Free Persons of Colour April A. D. 1848

Handbook of North American Indians VI: 365, 913-914.  F.W. Hodge, ed. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30,WashingtonDC: GPO, article titled Croatan and Mixed-Bloods by James Mooney

Hatteras History

Henderson Roll – Cherokee Census of 1835 –

Hill, Stephen Pony –

History of Racial Classification in Americaby Charles Shepherd

History of the Mattamuskeet Indian Alliance by Charles R. Shepherd

The Historie of Travel into Virginia Britania by William Strachey

History of the Meherrin Indians                                       

History of the Old Cheraws by Alexander Gregg (1819-1893)

Houmas Indians of Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana

Hyde County Genweb –

Implosion, the Secret History of the Origins of the Lumbee Indians by Morris Britt (Appendix F)

Indian Blood Runs In Many Harlan County Families © by Holly Fee-Timm
[originally published 3 June 1987 Harlan Daily Enterprise Penny Pincher]

Indian Cemetery (Huron Band Potawatomi), Athens, Calhoun Co., Mi.

In the Heart of the Arctics by Nicholas Senn, MD, PhD, 1907

Indian Map of Eastern NC

Indian Settlements in the Post-war Era

Journal of George Fox found in the  Colonial and State Records of NC

Journal of Rev. Alexander Stewart in May 1761, Missionary for the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel writes of his visit to Hyde Co. NC

The Journeys of James Needham and Gabriel Arthur in 1673 AND 1674
Through The Piedmont and Mountains of North Carolina to Establish Trade With The Cherokee

The Indians And the Collision of Cultures

Indians of North Americaby John Swanton

The Last Indians in Orange Co., Va., contributed by Dr. A.G. Grinnan, published in the Virginia Magazine of HIstory and Biography, Vol 3, #2 189-191 (Oct 1898) (Hat tip to Donna Dyer for this paper.)

Legends of Brunswick County, Ghosts, Pirates, Indians and Colonial North Carolina by J. C. Judah

Lumbee Tribe

The Lost Colony in Fact and Legend by F. Roy Johnson and Thomas Parreaore

The Lost Colony of Roanoke, Its Fate and Survival by Dr. Stephen B. Weeks

The Lost Colonists, Their Fortune and Probable Fate by David Beers Quinn

Lost Colony Research Group –

Manteo, Wanchese, or Whoever? by David Beers Quinn Emeritus, University of Liverpool

Mashpee Tribe  –

The Mattamuskeet Documents, A Study in Social History by Patrick H. Garrow

Mattamuskeet Indian Alliance and Society by Charles Shepherd

Mattamuskeet Unraveled – Roberta Estes

Melungeon Historical Society Compiled Timeline by Penny Ferguson

The Melungeons by Bonnie Ball

The Melungeons: A Mixed-blood Strain of the Southern Appalachians – Geographic Review by Edward T. Price, Vol 41, no 2,page 256 April 1951.

Melungeons, A Multi-Ethnic Population by Roberta J. Estes, Jack H. Goins, Penny Ferguson, Janet Lewis Crain, published the Journal of Genetic Genealogy, Fall 2011 edition,

The Mestizos of South Carolina by Brewton Berry (written in 1945)

Mixed Blood Indians: Racial Construction in the Early South by Theda Perdue

Monacan Nation

Mosely, Edward Map (1733) List of Names                                 

Native Americans Lived along Pedlar Creek at the Top of the Blue Ridge by Wikked Lester via Virginia Historical Assoc                                                                            

Native Carolinians: The Indians of North Carolina by Theda Perdue

Ne-Do-Ba – Genealogical and historical records at and on the organization’s homepage at this link:

Nemaha Half Breed Reservation Allottees – 1860

NC Archaeology Society Discusses Roanoke Island Colonization and Other Topics

New Ideas on the “Lost Colony” by E. Thomson Shields, Jr., East Carolina University

The North Carolina Colony by William S. Powell

North Carolina Historical and Genealogical Register Extracts

NC Historical and Genealogical Record Vol 1, page 266, by James Robert Bent Hathaway

North Carolina Wills and Inventories

Nottoway Tribal Census – 1808

Nottoway Tribe –

Occaneechi-Saponi Descendants in the Texas Community of the North Carolina Piedmontby Forest Hazel

Occaneechi-Saponi History

Oneida Indian Ancestry –,

Oneida from the Timothy Pickering Papers, 1758-1829; Vol 62:  Letters and Papers of Pickering’s Missions ot the Indians, 1792-1797, p 157-166a.  Frederick S. Allis, Jr., editor

The Only Land I Know, a History of the Lumbee Indians by Adolph L. Dial, David K. Eliades

Pamunkey Indian Petition 1893 –

Payne, Joe (website no longer functional)

Petition of Croatan Indians to the United States Congress, December 1887

Plecker, Walter, 1943 Letter providing “target list” of mixed race surnames (see blog posting for more information)

Pochahontas People by Helen Roundtree

The Portuguese Making of America: Melungeons and Early Settlers of America by Manuel Mira

The Powhatan Confederacy, Past and Present James Mooney                                     American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 9, No. 1 (Jan. – Mar., 1907), pp. 129-152

Queen Anne’s War 1702-1713: The American Indian Slave Trade of the Southern Frontier by Charles R. Shepherd (Oct 30, 2004)

Race, Identify and the Making of a Nation: Lumbee Indians in the Jim Crow South by Malinda Maynor Lowery

Recollections of Seventy Years by Daniel Alexander Payne (1888)

Remarks of the Honorable John D. Bellamy to the House of Representatives

Remnants of the Machapunga Indians of NC by Speck, Frank (1916) Report discussing Hyde County, NC Indian Population

Researching Tri-Racial Communities by Calvin Beale (1953)

Roanoke Colonies Research Office

Roanoke Island, the Beginning of English America by David Stick

Roanoke, Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony by Lee Miller

Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony by Karen Ordahl Kupperman, 1984

The Roanoke Voyages 1584-1590, Vol 2 edited by David Beers Quinn

Roster of NC Troops in the War between the states, vol 4 by NC General Assembly

Rowan County – Abstracts of the Minutes of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions Rowan  County, North Carolina 1753-1762

Saponi Indians Timeline by Donna Gowen Johnston

Saponi/Tutelo History and Timeline

The Scratch of a Pen by Colin Calloway

The Search For Croatan by David S. Phelps, East Carolina University

A Search for the Lost Colony in Beechland by Philip McMullan, Jr.

Set Fair to Roanoke: The Voyages and Colonies of 1584-1606 by David Beers Quinn

Shawnee/Cherokee Citizenship File, August 14, 1871, No. 460. Indian Archives,
Oklahoma Historical Society.

Shawnee Heritage I by Don Greene with Noel Schutz

Shipwrecked off of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Adam S. Eterovich, Croatia and the Croatians on the East Coast of Canada and America, 1492-1700 (Calgary, Canada: Croatian Canadian National Federation, 1993).

Sir Francis Drake’s West Indian Voyage 1585-86 edited by Mary Frear Keeler, published by the Hakluyt Society

Sir Walter Raleigh’s Lost Colony, an Historical Sketch of the Attempts of Sir Walter Raleigh to Establish a Colony in Virginia with the Traditions of an Indian Tribe in North Carolina indicating the Fate of the Colony of Englishmen Left on Roanoke Island in 1587 by Hamilton McMillan (1888)

So Good a Work: The Brafferton School, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 1988, Department of History, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia by Karen Stuart, Appendix B, Brafferton School Attendance Summary

The Southeast in Early Maps by William P. Cummings

Spain and Roanoke Island Voyages by Milagros Flores, 2008, unpublished

Spanish Frontier In America by David J. Weber 1992

The Spanish Pioneers in United States History – The Melungeons: The Pioneers of the Interior of the Southeastern United States 1526-1997 by Eloy J. Gallegos

A Study of Virginia Indians and Jamestown: The First Century

The Survival of the Lost Colony, the Untold Story by William V. Pate

Surviving Indians Groups of the Eatern US by William Harlen Gilbert, Annual Smithsonian report (1948)

Study of the Posteskeet Indians by Penny Ferguson                                

St. Peter’s Parish, Virginia, Records 1680-1787

Surviving Indians Groups of the Eastern US by William Harlen Gilbert

Tales and Traditions of the Lower Cape Fear 1661-1896 by James Sprunt (published in 1896)

Tapp Family –

Tennessee Pre-1796 Timeline

The Tinkling Spring, Headwater of Freedom by Howard McKnight Wilson

Tuscarora Chronology – website now defunct

The Tutelo Tribe and Language, American Philosophical Society proceedings, V21:147, Horatio Hale (1883)

Tyrrell County, NC Genweb –

Tyrrell County Records

University of the State of New York, State Library Bulletin, History No. 2, May 1899 – Colonial Records, General Entries V. I, 1664-1665

Villany Often Goes Unpunished: Indian Records from the North Carolina General Assembly Sessions 1675-1789 by William L. Byrd III

Virginia Tax Records at

The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography”, Vol. 4, Executive Journals, Council of Colonial Virginia

War of 1812 property claims from members of New York Indian tribes –

Who are Free Union/Piney Woods Mattamuskeet Indians? By Charles “Sweet Medicine” Shepherd

“Who’s Your People” – Cumulative Identity Among the Salyersville Indian Population of Kentucky’s Appalachia and the Midwest Muckfields, 1677-2000 by Richard Allen Carlson, Jr.

Why Native American Ancestors had European Sounding Last Names by David Vann

Wicocomico Nation –

WWI Draft Registration Records – 1917-1918 – through

12 Responses to Resources

  1. Tracy Green says:

    Thank you for posting the Ottawa and Chippewa Half Blood, I have been searching for my family’s half blood ancestry for quite awhile, I have three relatives listed on the census record. Would you happen to have an original copy of this census? I will gladly pay you for this record.

    • The transcribed records I used are found at the links shown in the resources. In other words, I don’t have the original documents. I suggest contacting the person who posted the transcribed lists. Best of luck and I’m so glad you found your ancestors!!

  2. melodie says:

    MIght I suggest the wiki pages as a resource? They have pathfinders for many of the tribes. I can state the Choctaw and Cherokee pages are well done. Here is the base link:
    The first reply will be a search. At the top will be a link to their pathfinder.

  3. Janet Hubbard says:

    Hi I really need to find out how to be tested for my Indian inheritance and to know how many tribes that I am an affiliated of. Please tell me how and what I can do cuz I can’t find anyone to help me. Thank you and May God Bless You All.

  4. Bella Smith says:

    My great great grandmother is pure Native American. But, I don’t see how I can get Blackfoot information.

  5. Walter E Evans says:

    We’re interested in helping preserve Native American Indian languages by focusing on young children. One valuable resource would be a free app or apps which children could use at home or elsewhere using a smart phone or tablet. We have developed a series of free English language literacy apps which could be adapted to help teach language and literacy in any Amerindian tribal language. Brainy Phonics, Brainy Sight Words, Brainy Words 2000, and Brainy Stories 1 are currently available for free download at the App Store, the first three at Amazon, and the first two at Google Play. Student teams at Georgia Tech University have developed several of these and, with tribal help, would be willing to create Amerindian versions which, if you choose, you could distribute exclusively to tribal members. You would not need to know anything about software development and there would be no cost. You would control the content files and could require a legal document stating that no tribal text or audio be released to the public without the tribe’s prior written consent.

    If you are interested, the first step would be reviewing the apps, deciding which you would like to focus on, then determining any changes you would like. The next step would be translating or creating text in your tribal language. The next step would be creating any art files you might want to add, and recording the audio files for the app. I would be more than happy to work with tribal representatives to accomplish all of this. We would have about six months to develop the text, art, and audio files. Once you know what text you want, recording and editing the audio files shouldn’t take more than a month. For the audio recording and editing all you would need are readers, an audio tech, and a studio. We could easily create and edit audio in a radio station studio, though all we really need is a teenager with Garageband or some similar software.

    Concurrently, during spring semester 2020 a Georgia Tech team or teams would focus on strategies for developing the app or apps. They would create working versions of the app or apps in fall semester 2020, and deliver their products in early December 2020.

    If you are simply curious and would like to explore the idea further, please contact me. Our website demonstrates that we do have experience with languages other than English. The link below leads to a section of the website containing over 100 stories in foreign languages.

    If you will send me an email addres I’ll send an attachment with an article about some of our work which received the Distinguished Research Article Award for 2016, presented by the Association for Childhood Education International.

    I do look forward to hearing from you.

    Best wishes,

    Dr. Walter Evans
    Professor Emeritus
    Augusta University

  6. S Mart says:

    I noticed the resource:
    Rowan County – Abstracts of the Minutes of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions Rowan County, North Carolina 1753-1762

    on this list. I’m looking for more info on my ancestor Philip Jacobs who had property in what was once Rowan. No land records with his name though. Do these Abstracts list who had Native background, etc.?

  7. Courtney Theilig says:

    How can I access Carlisle Indian school records? I am searching my g g grandmother who was sent there.

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