What is the Native Heritage Project?

The Native Heritage project is an ongoing effort to document the Native American people as they obtained surnames and entered recorded history in the continental United States.

As a genetic genealogist and historian, many people seek to find their Native ancestors, only to run up against both brick walls and a plethora of myths, some of which are true, and some of which are not.

I am the volunteer administrator of the American Indian Project at Family Tree DNAhttps://www.familytreedna.com/public/AmericanIndian/default.aspx

Many people discover that they have Native heritage via DNA testing but have no way to connect their surname with Native records an any location.

This project seeks to documents people who are Native in existing records.  To do this, I’m taking the following steps:

1. I’m collecting every instance of documents where Native people have surnames in some record that states they are Native, of Native descent, or have Native heritage.  Initially I’ve focused on the primary areas of Virginia, NC and SC and the Eastern Seaboard states.  These, for the most parts, are tribes that were annihilated.  Tribes west of the Mississippi were often able to maintain their tribal and cultural heritage after those east of the Mississippi has all but disappeared.

2.  I’m matching the list generated by item 1 against people who are haplogroups Q and C, which are Native, to find a matches between the two lists.

3.  Ultimately, I’d like to combine that information, above, with historical research that maps oldest ancestor of those who are genetically Native and village/tribe locations and perhaps, in time, we can find a correlation and a way to tell which tribe someone is descended from.

This is an unbelievable amount of work.  I’ve been at it almost 10 years now.  Much of my early work was in documenting mixed race migrations and historical reading and references documenting early tribal locations.

I am maintaining a separate page that shows resources I have already accessed.  If you have any record of a person that shows their Native ancestry, with documentation, please contact me.  I’d love to give them a voice by including their record in the project.

If you would like to take a DNA test to help document your heritage, click here.

184 Responses to What is the Native Heritage Project?

  1. Greetings from Northeastern North America. My organization, Ne-Do-Ba, ( http://www.nedoba.org ) provides a service not too unlike yours. We research in existing records and local histories and maintain a database of documented families and individuals. We assist the public in making connections. A year ago I started a “research journal” blog to show the steps in properly documenting family history. ( http://www.nedoba.blogspot.com ) .

    We have not added DNA to the mix, but I plan to follow your blog to see how you implement it.

    Please keep us in mind if you discover registrants born in ME, NH, VT, New Brunswick, and Quebec. We have reservations in Maine at Old Town, Perry, and Pleasant Point, so I would not need to learn about registrants in those reservation communities, but all others would be of interest.

    Wishing you the best in this wonderful project you have. We need more people like you.

    Nancy Lecompte
    Research Director for Ne-Do-Ba

    • What a wonderful organization. I’m so glad to see that you’re documenting this for people as well. I’ll do a blog posting about your group! So glad you’re with us!

      • pamela tandy says:

        Thank you for this, Roberta. Well said. On paper, I am a descendant of Metacomet and those who came before him. All signs point to his daughter, Ann, marrying John Starkweather. These are my ancestors. I have had an autosomal test and am wondering if there are markers for this Wampanoag group?
        Thank you,
        Pam, from early settlers up and down the eastern seaboard

      • No markers associated with any tribe.

      • pamela tandy says:

        To be more specific, I did not mean “tribe” as a political entity as per your explanation. but native groups up and down the eastern seaboard. My own theory is that Native Americans mixed with Europeans–those traders and explorers from every continent–long before Columbus. In other words, they were always admixed. I just wish there were some way to use DNA to connect dots when not documents are available.

  2. Barbara says:

    What do you think about this research?


    Do you think these markers will eventually be helpful to very admixed people?

    • pamela tandy says:

      How interesting. Thanks you so much for posting this.

      • M. Tande says:

        “My own theory is that Native Americans mixed with Europeans–those traders and explorers from every continent–long before Columbus.” – huh? That doesn’t make any sense.

  3. I have actively opposed tribal people giving up their DNA for studies like these. While it might be interesting to learn that one has a distant Italian or Mongol ancestor, the impact on Italy or Mongolia is non-existent in those cases. The same is not true for American Indians, particularly the Cherokee and Lakota aka Sioux.

    Both tribes suffer tremendous threats to their cultural life ways by non-Indians or possibly Indian descendants posing as Indians and appropriating cultural traditions that do not belong to them, performing powwows and bastardized ceremonies in the name of the tribe. The Cherokee issue is particularly acute because as the number of undocumented claimants now outnumber enrolled Cherokees of all three federally recognized governments nearly 3 to one.

    The Cherokee Nation has identified over 200 groups claiming to be Cherokee governments, bands, confederacies, clans and tribes, some of them state recognized, although none of them having proof they are a tribe or even of Cherokee descent.

    The Cherokee people (the real ones) are among the best documented human beings on the planet. We have records dating back to the mid-18th Century, 30 tribal rolls starting in 1817 and thousands of linear feet of documents created by the tribe, missionaries, states, federal officials and even travelers have left journals. The net cast to capture the names of Cherokee ancestors for the past 200+ years has been wide and thorough.

    I am not saying there are no Cherokee descendants out there who are not eligible for enrollment. They are there. I have met many and most of them are my kin. Which brings up another point. If someone is of Cherokee descent, though not eligible to enroll, they have kinfolk in the tribe. One example is a man I met on Facebook who descends from our common ancestor 7 generations ago. His family stayed in Tennessee, while my branch marched west on the Trail of Tears. His ancestors are listed in previous tribal rolls and payments, as are mine, even before the Trail of Tears. But because his ancestors lived in the east, they were not citizens of the Cherokee Nation and not listed on the Dawes Rolls. And their blood quantum was too low to be listed on the Eastern Cherokee’s Baker Roll. He is a descendant of a Cherokee; I am a Cherokee. Yes we are kin, but our legal status is very different. And we are friends. I would not be quite so friendly if he decided to create his own tribe. He won’t be doing that because he respects the Cherokee people too much.

    And finally, it is of great concern that you seem to be recreating the Walter Plecker model of determining race based on surnames. That your efforts have the ring of benevolence to it does not alter the similarity.

    • Hi David,

      The Native Heritage and the Native Names projects, neither one are focused on people in currently enrolled tribes. I hope that everyone can find something of interest, but the focus of both of these projects are the people whose ancestors and heritage were stripped away, generations before thier lifetimes. These people very much would like to know who those ancestors were and something about them. The records of those ancestors, if they do exist, are often hidden in places that no one would ever think or know to look. By bring these to light, by documenting them, I am doing what I can to reverse the genocidal process of destroying all vestiges of the “Indian.” Many tribes are already forever extinct. Every ancestor’s name who is salvaged is honored and brought to light again. Whether someone can or cannot join a tribe as a result is not my concern. Tribes, per say, are political entities. What I am doing, is not, and I have intentionally tried to stay away from politics. I am aware of the issues surrounding the federally recognized tribes, state recognized tribes, and others, and I simply have no comment. My goal is to bring the ancestors to light and to hopefully provide a lamplight backward in time for someone looking for those ancestors.

      Regarding racial issues. This project is not about race. Indians, people recognized as Indians by other Indians and by non-Indians were not necessarily of one “race.” Whites intermarried in, blacks intermarried in, people were adopted. This project is about heritage. Surnames are the only way, aside form DNA, that genealogists have to connect with ancestors. The only way to prove your Native heritage is either via surnames, which are records, and which are often or generally classified as some flavor of non-white, DNA directly, as in finding a Native haplogroup, or a direct paternal or maternal DNA match with someone else who is proven to be Native. Without those avenues, there are none left. I strongly believe that people whose heritage has been taken from them through historical acts and circumstances far beyond their control and that of anyone in this generation should have the opportunity to reclaim those ancestors and that heritage. I am honoring those who came before by helping thier descendants to know them in whatever scant way they can.


      • Brent "Peppy" Stanley says:

        Wow well put!!! I’m a Redbone / Melungeon from S.W. Louisiana. My Grandma is Pearl Bass on my Dad’s side. And Janie Perkins on my Mom’s. I got my DNA done by Ancestry. Wow what a Mix!!! C-group DNA. I’m at a stop with my Bass line. From one Native to the other. I would love some help!

      • john harding says:

        RIGHT ON Roberta !!!!

    • Margaret C Quednau says:

      My 3rd Great Grandfather was “Indian John” Brady 1790-1848 married to Sarah Sally Jones (white, I think). They would have lived in western (Rutherford or Cherokee County) North Carolina. His Daughter was Rachel Brady Jones (wife of Elias, Sr) 1812-1904. They are my second great grandparents on my Dad’s side. When my brother, cousin and I had DNA tests from ancestry.com they said we didn’t have any Indian DNA. Is that normal? Can you tell me where I could find more information on the Brady’s. I would appreciate any help you could give me. Margaret Jones Quednau

    • James Cook says:

      I understand and respect your sentiment. I have just gotten my DNA results and it shows I have a good portion of my DNA from the Iroquois peoples. I would have never expected that. My mother (very pale, blond hair, silver blue eyes) always said her grandma had a parent who was a First Nation person, but none of us believed her. My mother unexpectedly passed away last year so I cannot ask more about it. Perhaps projects like this can help us who are in such situations find some answers. That branch of my family is now dead. I am struggling to find these answers because my great grandmother’s parents have no documents and their surnames are unusual. It leds me to think they were First Nation people who adopted another name.

      I love being descendant from a First Nation person. It’s fascinating and I would love to meet them.

  4. That all sounds good on paper, but totally skirts the reality that once people believe themselves to be something, they want it all, not just the knowledge. Those who may be of descent are either black or white now, with no vestige of tribal knowledge or culture. I see it every day with proven thin bloods. Once they get that card in their pocket, its all out Indian after that. As a biologist myself, I can appreciate knowledge for knowledge sake, but as a citizen of two of the authentic Cherokee governments, I worry that projects such as yours will only fuel the fire of wannabeism and advance the destruction of tribal sovereignty. Good luck with your project.

    • wayneeric says:

      I am still not quite sure why you protest so vehemently against DNA genealogy projects. I am not quite clear by what you mean when you said “. . .once people believe themselves to be something, they want it all . . .” What is the “all” that you warn about?
      As for me, I do know quite a bit about my ancestry, Native American and British, than most people. My late father was a Tuscarora chief, as was his father. The surname Chew, at least the British version, was Cheux originally. Then changed to Chewe for some. By the time John Chew landed in America in Jamestown, circa 1622, aboard the British ship Charitie, Chew was spelled C-H-E-W. All through my school years fellow classmates, and some parents, insisted that Chew was an oriental name. Even now, people I talk to online also insist that Chew cannot possibly be a British surname, but rather, a surname from China. Well, not mine. As a matter of fact, there is a place called Chew Valley in England, and it is not from some Chinese derivative.

      It is not that I have anything against oriental people, but like some, I take a liitle ancestral
      pride about my heritage, and the history of those who came before me. Also, I really do not need a DNA analysis to prove that I am Native American, and do not “think” I am looking for that “all” that you speak of. On the other hand perhaps I am, since I do not really know what you mean by what you said. But, I would like to know much more about my ancestry, especially on my mother’s side.

      Finally yes, even my Native American genealogical blood is diminished, or reduced; first from being initially British and French (Chews came from Normandy before arriving in England), and then on my Mother’s side, who is only half Mohawk, mixed with German ancestry. But, I am so fascinated, and yes, proud, that my Dad–and his Dad before him– had tremendous leadership in the role as a Tuscarora chief, And I am amazed at the role played by my direct ancestor, John Chew, and his line, as a first American; and the role my line played in the building of the Virginia colony and the creation of these United States.

      If you could tell me exactly what you fear really is, then perhaps I could better understand; and maybe even agree with your concerns.

    • Mark DeMucha says:

      Mr. Cornsilk, though I empathize with your position on a certain level, I am also somewhat offended on another. Your reference to “thin bloods,” who, though may be verifiable descendants of Cherokee ancestors, no longer possess any vestige of tribal knowledge or culture is, in my opinion, just as racist a remark as any ever leveled against our Cherokee people. The very concept of blood quantum (BQ) politics is one that originated with white European occupation, and existed principally to act as an exclusionary mechanism. Further use of BQ by agents of the federal government was intended to essentially eradicate tribal nations through attrition. If someone, thin blooded or not, has verified their ancestry as being Cherokee and chooses to go “all out Indian” then it is a blessing for the long term preservation of our culture. My grandfather was a mixed blood Cherokee, but the other-than-Cherokee blood in his veins didn’t stop the government from sticking him and his siblings into the Concho Indian Boarding School or the Chilocco Indian Agricultural School. His departure from the Indian territory and east Oklahoma was as much a matter of survival as anything else. All that remained in him of his culture were the fragments of what the Indian schools weren’t able to beat out of him. This forced de socialization wasn’t his choice. It was all part of Capt. Richard H. Pratt’s “Kill the Indian, and Save the Man” doctrine. It is nothing other than admirable that descendants want to maintain and increase their embracing of the culture that was forcibly taken from them and their ancestors.
      I am Cherokee, be my blood thick or thin.
      I do not, however, fault you for fighting against fake tribal entities that are money grubbing shucksters.

      • Jennifer Galvin says:

        Exactly the cultural genocide by European colonialization is not the fault of the victims. You are lucky to have what you have. But it is not right in my view to shame those less fortunate cousins who have been equally oppressed and victimized by conquest and colonialization, for having a genuine longing to understand who their ancestors are, and the true history and their place in the world. The reality is there was mass genocide of the peoples on this continent. You may be one of the few cultural survivors, I understand your reasons to guard that which is sacred and hard earned to preserve. But I think that people have a right to know their history and who they are. There will remain a cultural orphandom in those of us who have a traumatized beaten down history and unfortunately that is where subsitutes like evangelicalism and new age woo often take root. I imagine many African Americans also may have a longing to know what country or even tribe they may have descended from. It gives people a renewed sense of identity and strength to know their history. My perspective for the future is a mixed and hybrid culture of peoples that recognize the past but must create a new way of being that feed the spirit as well. Living in communion and reverence with the Earth, who without bias embraces all her children.

      • Brenda Howe says:

        AMEN! My feelings exactly. I am 68, but I have known about my Native American ancestors since I was old enough to remember my mother’s stories. I have been proud of all of my ancestors, but always proud that some of my ancestors were here when my first European ancestors arrived on the Mayflower. In my 30s I became involved with an Intertribal Urban group and then helped with Title IV Indian Education through the local schools. Over the years I have taught beadwork, leathercraft, traditional foods, medicinal herbs, etc. Eventually, as a nurse, I worked as a Public Health Nurse on a large reservation. I do not have enough BQ for tribal membership, but I AM Cherokee, Shawnee, Choctaw, Melungeon, in addition to all of my other ethnic markers. I may be thin-blood, but it is REAL and part of my life.

    • Joy says:

      I know many decedents that practice Native traditions, cultures and way of life far more than most of the enrolled members I know. Some even speak the Native tongue more fluently and often than the enrolled members. They truly embrace the core values and way of life. We should embrace the decedents as part of our tribal heritage and learn from each other. If we work to grow our communities and our teachings we can strengthen as a whole and make this american a better place again.

  5. I can see why you may have reason for concern, David. I use these resources to track part of my own family, in part because so much of my searches for them turns up this information. It appears that the surnames Collins (and sometimes Russell), are linked with native groups in the eastern North Carolina area. This was all quite circumstantial until I found two records of relatives from the 19th century who were listed as “colored.” I had no idea what to make of this. Going back, I find 18th century links through marriage to people who were possibly Tuscarora or Chowan remnants. That doesn’t mean I am going to organize my own band of Tuscarora (how ridiculous would that be), but it interests me and I would like to find out more. If anything, it enriches my understanding of colonial history, that it was not this 1950s textbook account of what took place, that some of the local populations were assimilated. That seems like a more convincing explanation to the question of where the coastal populations went, rather than the 19th century narrative that they “died out.”

    • Robbyn Argilagos says:

      Hi Juztin, I found this page and comment on an internet search. My direct matrilineal is traceable back to a Dollie Russell, married to Hawkins “Hawkey” Gunter. Family tradition holds that Dollie Russell was Cherokee. Hawkey Gunter’s uncles married documented Cherokee women as did some of their sons. Is there a way to discover my Russell g-g-g-g+ grandmother through any avenues that might be not publically searchable through an internet search? Dolly/Dollie Russell was born 1792 and I would simply like to discover whether she was or was not Cherokee and who her forbears were for no other reason than knowing and appreciating the findings.

      Thank you for any help 🙂

      Robbyn Argilagos

  6. Justin you may not be inclined to organize your own “tribe.” But the proof is in the pudding, as they say. The number of fake tribe, including some claiming to be Tuscarora, abound. One person with good sense does not negate the thousands of phonies or the harm they do.

  7. Trish Kendall says:

    As a female my DNA covers all of Europe and the Americas. It is H and at one time it was H*.
    Two greatgranparents female from paternal side was full blood cherokee. gGrandpa from maternal side 1/2 cherokee. Grandmother on the rolls @ telequah. I have a lot of hebrew blood.
    Could it be that the Cherokee People are one of the lost tribes of Israel or should I test specifically for native identity. I have seen my native family on and off the Rez. They Look like natives.
    My parents looked native. My sister is blonde, I have brown hair, we both have green eyes. My sisters daughter looks native. I am hanging in and betting that the cherokee are one of the lost tribes of israel.

  8. Roberta J. Estes, you’re a saint & a scholar, no doubt. Slogging through such a stew of chauvinism and breathtaking arrogance must surely take its toll.

    To even suggest that history and knowledge for all who seek it should be suppressed because some “wannabes” might try to come and scam you out of what’s “yours”…well, that says tons more about the speaker than about the alleged threat. And how screamingly ironic if what you believe is “yours” is defined by the very systems of oppression, rape, and plunder that put you in the trick bag of having to prove your “eligibility” in the first place.

    After all, think about it: Who created the terms and set the standards for “authentic” and “legitimate” and under what political and historical circumstances? Who decided the only “real” Cherokee is an “enrolled Cherokee,” that the only “authentic Cherokee” is one who is “well documented” by missionaries, federal officials, and linear feet of what created by whom?

    Whose interests did those contrivances serve at their origins? Whose ox is being gored even now?

    Do folks who place such high stock in all that “proof” ever connect the dots between their need to jump through certification hoops and the actions of those vaunted missionaries, esteemed federal officials, and all their valuable talking paper?

    You nailed it with this: “Tribes are…political entities.” Which is why it would be laughable if it weren’t so tragic to hear such gasping and gnashing of teeth over the possibility that folks who find a bit-o-Indian blood will load up on turquoise, strap on some buckskin, and bust into a break dance patterned after something they stole from a pow wow.

    Perhaps the person with the “thin blood” is actually the face in the mirror. Otherwise, why would someone secure in their “authenticity” get so freaked out by other folks’ desire simply to know or, yeah, even to get that card in their pocket?

    “This project is not about race,” you wrote. “This project is about heritage.” Ah, there’s the rub. The attempt to assert dominance with a feint toward “science” was utterly predictable.

    I deeply honor your work, your intentions, and your determination to assist all who seek to reclaim their ancestors and their heritage, Roberta. Thank you so very much for continuing this awesome project.

  9. And perhaps, Ms. Singley, you should turn your mirror upon yourself and ask, what do I see. Anywho, the real danger to Indian people is not the claim itself. The real danger is the assault on sovereignty, which is what we protect; not the plastic card, which is only a representation. What you fail to understand or choose to ignore, is the long and tragic history of deprivation suffered by American Indians at the hands of those who would take whatever it is we have for their own benefit and use. Since our identity is all that we have left, that is the next target on your list. Yours is the agenda of genocide and colonialism, nothing more, nothing less.

    • Diana Mitchell says:

      I could go on reading the comments on this page, but I have to respond here to you, David. I respect your concerns. They are no different from those of the Native Africans when the freed slaves returned to Sierra Leone. But, what happened there, does not need to happen here. Those who have native connections to this land–the U.S.–simply want to know and understand their ancestors better. We need people steeped in their heritage to teach us. Wannabe? How can I wanna be what I am?

      • Diana Mitchell says:

        Sorry, meant to say Liberia I had Sierra Leone on the brain because I once knew someone from Sierra Leone, and reading this page made me think of her.

      • Phyllis says:

        Exactly! I am what I am. Nothing more nothing less.

  10. Roberta, once again, I’m stunned at the amazing amount of information you’ve generated on all your websites and how one click here or one click there leads to another mother Iode. As a rank amateur, I get way too excited when small pieces of information begin clicking with larger pieces. That just happened to me yesterday when I was browsing the Lost Colony Research Group surnames page checking out my Chavis-Jacobs-Jackson NC ancestors.

    [I’ll apologize before I go on in case I’m about to share info that everybody here already knows. In case there are a few like me who’re still pretty much a tabula rasa, though, here goes.]

    At the Lost Colony Research Group’s surnames page http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~molcgdrg/sur/1surnames.htm, I clicked on a link for “Heinegg extractions” because I had no idea what that was. As I read about Paul Heinegg’s book, “Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina,” instantly, I decided I needed to get my hands on it. Eventually, I ended up at online booksellers because I wanted to see if I could find it for less than $90. That led me to online reviews of the book where one reviewer mentioned that Heinegg had posted the entire book online for free. I couldn’t believe that was true, so I decided to check that out.

    Sure enough, it’s here: http://freeafricanamericans.com/Virginia_NC.htm

    That’s it–my find of the day that I wanted to share in the same spirit of generosity, information gathering and sharing that you’ve created here and that you so determinedly sustain.

    Good day from a NC Tri-racial Isolate!

  11. *mother Lode…not “mother Iode”! 😀

  12. In “Proudly African AND Native American–Really?” Shirley Neal writes:

    “According to several historians, most African Americans today who believe they are of Native American heritage are misled. Dr. Rick Kittles, a geneticist and co-founder of http://www.africanancestry.com who has performed DNA testing on over 30,000 African Americans offers, ‘If you ask ten African-Americans if they have Native American ancestry, eight of them will say ‘yes,’ but when we actually test them, it’s less than 10 percent.’

    “Interestingly, as far back as the 1920s, Dr. Carter Woodson (known as the father of Black History) posited that a third of most African Americans have Indian blood. Research since DNA genetic testing confirms that 5% of all African Americans have at least 12.5% Native American ancestry, equivalent to a great grandparent.”

    Read the rest of what Neal has to say here: http://www.africanancestry.com/blog/

    • Part of this has to do with what type of test is given. For a long time, the majority of the Native American Y-line and mtdna results we had to work with came from the African American population. Recently, Henry Louis Gates said that when using autosomal tests, which takes into account all of your ancestors, that about 40% of African Americans shows some Native American ancestry. Given the pervasiveness of Native slavery, I’m not surprised. Perhaps the majority of the Native Americans in the most populous states during colonial times that survived did so as slaves. It will be interesting to see how this unfolds moving forward.

  13. Skip Gates company is the one I used for my mtDNA analysis, which was incomprehensible to me except for establishing my haplogroup.

    I just browsed http://dnaexplain.muniweb.com/Services/DNAAnalysis.asp and I’m pretty sure I know which product I’m about to purchase. I’ve been looking for a way to make sense of the gibberish (to me) that was supposed to explain my test results, which “traced to a European ancestor.”

    Absolutely no surprise there, of course, but I’m still looking for the rest of my folks, Native and African.

    • Gigi Best says:

      Hello Berni,

      I have read many the statements about people attempting to lift their status in in life by falsely claiming to be Indian. I have completed my DNA on 23andMe and have connected with many DNA cousins from different ethnic backgrounds and I know I am of African, Native American, British, Irish, French, and Basque. One of my family surnames is “Locust,” who are on the Cherokee rolls and like many others, I know who they were and that some of them hid out in NC to avoid the “Trail of Tears.” I find there are more people of more European descent than myself, who are carrying cards and look nothing like Native Americans.

      My family has been working on their ancestry for many, many years and I have proved my British and Irish ancestry through several lineage organizations. I have proven my ancestry to British royalty, but that is not important to me because my goal is to honor my “Free People of Color” ancestry, which does include East African and Native American. My FPOC, along with the Chavis, Archers, etc. who were forced first to leave Virginia, then North Carolina, and then Lick Creek, Vigo, Indiana by racist people, who thought of them as a threat. They fought in the American Revolutionary War and though they were “free.” the Civil War also. My father also fought in the Second World War. So, I believe I have the right to be proud of all of my ancestors.

      The worst thing we can do as humans is turn against each other and have an elitist approach to our ancestral roots. We should all love each other and realize that our ancestors were mistreated and many of my relatives died on the “Trail of Tears.” So, I am very interested in Roberta’s project and would like to connect with her and Berni offline. The negativity which appears on this blog is not productive, so I will not return to this blog. If you two ladies could send me your email addresses I would appreciate the contact.

      Thank you,


  14. My name is Wayne Eric Chew. I am direct descendant of John Chew who landed in America circa 1622 aboard the English vessel Charitie. Some other direct descendants are Tuscarora Chiefs William Chew, Jefferson Chew (my grandfather), Hibert Chew (my father). Our family, as you probably know, was instrumental in the building of the Virginian Colony; specifically, Orange County, Va. As history unfolded, my family entered into the Native American culture through marriage to a Tuscarora woman. I would like to find out the specifics about how my direct line became Tuscarora. Can you help? Interestingly, another direct descendant was very much involved with the Madison family, trough friendship and marriage; making me a cousin to President James Madison. Other ancestors had political connection to Washington, Jefferson, etc. We also are connected to President Zachary Taylor. While I have had my genealogy done a few years back, I seem to have many more question now than ever before. Any help would be wonderful. If there is anything I can assist you with please do not hesitate to ask. I am on Twitter and Facebook, and am following you on Twitter. Thank you.

    • Hi Wayne. I can’t help you directly, but maybe some of our other followers can. You have a good handle already in that you have the Chew history of how it became Tuscarora. Have you DNA tested already?

  15. wayneeric says:

    I am not quite sure that my post is being published. So, let me briefly re-write.it. I am a direct descendant of John Chew, the British gentleman who landed at Jamestown VA, aboard the English vessel the Charitie. My ancestors were instrumental in the construction of the Virginian colony and Orange County, Va. The Chews of Virginia also intertwined in friendship and marriage to the “Madison” family, and I am a cousin of President Madison. My more recent direct descendants are Chief William Chew, Chief Jefferson Chew (my grandfather), and Chief Hibert Chew (my late father); all Tuscarora chiefs. Even though I have had my genealogy done a few years back I am very interested in finding out “exactly” how my family turned from predominately British to Tuscarora Indian. I have found out some very rich history about my family and their historical interactions, which include relationships with George Washington, and many other founding fathers. My line includes lawyers, military personnel and other military connections (USS Chew), and important men from Philadelphia (Cliveden, Chew Mansion)..From my research, I have discovered a wealth of ancestral documents and factual accounts. But, I still do not know how my line on my father’s side went from British to Tuscarora. I would treasure any help. Also, if you need any assistance about the Native American side of my history I would enthusiastically agree to do anything you asked. I am on Twitter, and Facebook; and am now following you and twitter. Your blog is a valuable asset to myself and others. Thank you.

  16. De Anna says:

    Hello Roberta. My name is De Anna Overcast. I was born in Blountville, Tennessee. My mother was Mary Evelynn Bowman (her maiden name). My mother was the ggreat grand daughter of Esaias Bowman. Esaias Bowman was born in 1763, Augusta County, Virginia. He fought in Revolutionary War, at The Battle of King’s Mountain. He has been listed as a free man of color, an
    African American, and a person of color. My family history was that my mother was of Indian decent. All my life this was my family history, they have been in the southwest Virginia , eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina area before the white people came to settle there. My mother or my mother’s parents never spoke of being of African American decent. But I did hear people speak of Melungon, Redbone and Blackdutch. This was when I was a child growing up. I am now sixty. I have done my family research off and on for many years, I know Esaias Bowman was a man of color and he lived among the Indians, I have land deeds numbers of his from 1807
    in Washington County, Tennessee. I also found him in some of the Tennessee Indian Agency documents for 1801 or 1807. (I cant recall for sure) I do have the documents in my genealogy database. I know he move back to Washington Co. Virginia in 1814 and he is in the Virginia Court
    records bringing slaves with him.
    My family on my mothers side always claimed Indian ancestors, but I never found documentation that said “I” for indian……I am from that area, most times you didnt speak of things such as that to strangers. I was told that people of a kind moved together and I found this true in my research. My
    family is not registered as anything, but have been called many names.
    Your research is of interest to me, maybe my family might be one of those you speak of interest to you. I thank you for your time.
    De Anna

  17. I find it odd how much people resist believing their ancestors were of African descent in a time when black was the bottom of the barrel. Claiming Indian was climbing the racial social ladder, so why wouldn’t someone do that if they could? Believe what you find and stop trying to paint your black roots red.

    • Gale says:

      Wow, David you must know that their are people within your tribe with African and European ancestry?

      • Gale says:

        To say blacks were at the bottom of the barrel is racist….blacks were resilient and have many achievements and accomplishments to have suffered the atrocities of enslavement. Native Americans were known for taking in Africans and Europeans into their tribes. Look at the situation on the reservations today. I have cousins on the relatives on the Lakota Oglala-Sioux reservation in South Dakota and I know their situation…speaking of at the bottom of the barrel… is painfully derogatory and painful to any human that have suffered degradation mandated with political, economical, social, educational, religious and familial oppression. You should be able to preserve the Native Culture without offending others. Because of the history of the United States… you mostly likely are not 100% genetically Native American but rear and socialized culturally yes, you are. There is very much importance in being proud of al cultures… it is call the preservation of mankind.

  18. De Anna says:

    Mr. Cornsilk, I find you odd. I did not claim Indian or Black in my first post. I was only explaining to
    Roberta my family history. I am not interested in the chip you have on your shoulder.
    The only ladder I choose to climb is to become a better person. My race, my color is what others see me as. I am far more than that. You my misguided man should show just a little respect.
    You have no clue to whom you speak.

  19. You find “me” odd or you find what I write odd, because, as you pointed out, we don’t know each other. Perhaps a class on writing skills might benefit you. There is nothing odd about people of African ancestry falsely claiming to be Indian. There are entire groups claiming to be tribes with hundreds of members who base their Indian identity on false claims made by their ancestors. There’s nothing odd about it. In fact, its rather common place.

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  21. Pingback: Announcing the Native American Haplogroup C DNA Project | Native Heritage Project

  22. ITSCHAC says:

    Dear Roberta! my father’s mtDNA haplogroup A2, however did the Finder and my family did not come blends Native American in FTDNA like to know why you?

    Continent (Subcontinent) Population Percentage Margin of Error
    Africa (West African) Yoruba 77,82% ±0,28%
    Middle East Jewish, Palestinian, Bedouin, Bedouin South, Druze 8,11% ±1,97%
    Europe Finnish, Russian 14,07% ±2,06%

    • Haplogroup A2 is also found in Europe, particularly in eastern Russia. Autosomal results may or may not pick up many generations back, depending on how the DNA was transmitted/inherited. Your Russian may be the source of the A2.

  23. David Mitchell says:

    Just trying to find who we really are…my great grandmother was pull by her legs through a small town of louisiana because she lied and said that she was white, but she was a beautiful Indian. The family didn’t have any help so now they decided to black. I have some pictures and some people have their picture in a store. When my mother told them that’s her grandfather they took it down. We just trying who we came from. The doctor tells my daughters that they are native with the face features and the very long hair to their legs; and dark tab skin. Can u help. My grandparents from Houma and st. Mary both sides.

  24. Ron V says:

    I’m not sure why I’m leaving a reply here. I have no Native American heritage that I know of. Just wanted to tell Mr. Cornsilk, Mr. Petrone, Ms. Overcast, Mr. Chew, and others how much I’ve enjoyed reading your informative, sometimes controversial, replies.
    When people are willing to bear their true feelings, truth usually wins. I am most grateful for Roberta’s dedication to science and discovery. Her revelations here have led me to understand much about our true ancestry. And that is the goal of this endeavor, isn’t it? It isn’t to detract from the accomplishments or achievements of others as Mr. Cornsilk suspects.
    I might add that herein lies power to accomplish one’s goals. Knowledge is power. Whatever your goals, Mr. Cornsilk, be they political, scientific, or historical, wouldn’t they best be served by knowing the truth? DNA discovery would help, not hurt you and those who think like you.
    Whatever group you represent could simply establish criteria that says you must descend from a certain person or group of persons and your blood must represent a certain percentage of (whatever) to maintain membership. Would that not help your efforts? DNA experts like Roberta Estes, and their discoveries do nothing but help us all.
    For instance, some prefer to think of themselves as black because of their skin color, others because of their ancestry, still others who have no established preference, learn they have some black ancestors (like me) but have skin color and known ancestry of some other heritage. Race has so little meaning in these days of discovery. DNA and genealogical research has revealed we are all truly becoming mixed thanks to our great American melting pot. Those who have found joy in some of their heritage, be they red, black, or white, Native American, African American, or Caucasian, are simply seeking what we genealogists have long sought, to discovery who we are and where we came from.
    Mr. Cornsilk, you seem to know who you are and where you came based on what you said about your well-documented genealogy. Congratulations! I celebrate your efforts and hope to learn as much as you have. Like Mr. Chew, I too can trace some of my ancestry back to Jamestown, about 1618. I hope one day to find whether stories of Native Americans in the family are true. I hope one day to discover who the black matriarch was whose blood is still found in my mother’s line. Genealogical research has helped us all as will DNA research. Through DNA research I’ve already learned much about my family’s heritage. So will you and anyone else who is interested in their ancestry. God bless Roberta Estes, Bennett Greenspan, and all the other scientists whose efforts have helped us learn so much thus far.

  25. got2bjb says:

    I applaud you! Well said!

  26. Margaret Pearce says:

    Hi Robert,
    I have been researching my ancestry for many years hoping to learn more about my families. My maternal grandfather said he was part Iroquois but did not say more than that. I have hit brick walls with his Gibson’s and Lemmon/Lemon’s and hope that through DNA I can finally know his genealogy. I recently discovered that my 9th Gr Grandfather was Massasoit, 8th Gr Grandfather was Metacomet/King Philip and this discovery was aided by DNA. But I am still researching for the Gibson & Lemmon/Lemon. Research such as yours will aid people like myself who are just looking to find ALL of their ancestry and are NOT out to get something other than finalizing their family tree to pass on to future generations.

    • Did you ever get any more Indigenous details on you Lemon family?

    • Pamela Tandy says:

      Maggie, I am curious about your DNA connection to Massasoit. Did a male family member discover this via Y chromosome testing, or did you discover the connection
      through autosomal testing? I have found a direct ancestor who connects via autosomal DNA to Lydia Starkweather, granddaughter of John Starkweather (husband of Ann Philips Woodbury, who was, ostensibly, the daughter of Metacomet). But you are the first person I see to be connected to Metacomet or Massasoit, his father. My family connection to Lydia Starkweather is through a Cook, and that autosomal connection is on WikiTree. Mr. Cook’s name does not appear in autosomal links to Massasoit. So I am quite curious as to what this test result would look like. Of course, it is entirely possible that Ann was not Mmetacomet’s daughter.

      • Margaret Pearce says:

        Hi Pamela, I have several DNA connections to Massasoit and ancestors of Massasoit through The Wheldon’s, Taylor’s, Bearse’s, Stanton’s, lines that are direct ancestors. I have been the only one tested in my family. My parents are no longer alive, and my brothers are not into DNA testing.

      • Pamela Tandy says:

        Maggie, I only just found your reply from May about DNA connections. I am quite interested in your Taylor line. Mt brother’s new Y-DNA results tie him to Taylors. Could you share your Taylor tree with me? I am Tandy-271 on Wikitree. You can message me there. Or if you can view my email here, please contact me. This is starting to make sense.

      • Margaret Pearce says:

        Hi, I will have to see what is on WikiTree. My full tree is on Ancestry. It is an ongoing labor of love. Still have mysteries to solve. Remember not all NA ancestry has DNA testing. Many Nations are not included, just the more prominent ones. So if no “Native American” shows up in DNA testing, do not be discouraged. Follow the lines but don’t blindly take for 100% until you have done research.

      • Margaret Pearce says:

        Hi Pam, Lost my login for wikitree, created a new one and tried to upload my newest tree. Unfortunately it says the file is too large. So right now my tree is on ancestry, name Dean Family. It is a public tree so anyone can view it.

      • pamela says:

        Maggie, thank you so much for the Dean Family info. Going there now…

  27. Jim Long says:

    I belong to a Gibson group on Facebook. We are combining efforts to ascertain parentage of our Gibson ancestors. Through documentation as well as DNA. Your line sounds familiar, but I’m not sure off the top of my head? Look us up at Gibsons of Newman Ridge.

  28. Kerry Eikenbary says:

    How do I add my DNA into the fold? My grandfather was born on the Shawnee, OK reservation but he never let anyone know he was of native descent due to fear of discrimination. We know ancestors came up the Trail of Tears but refused to enter their names on the Dawes roles due to mis-trust of the USA… for good reason… but it would be nice to know that part of my family tree.

  29. dolores mosley says:

    I am Dolores Rose Mosley. I am in the process of organizing the Mosley Pow Wow in Washington DC, we are all of Powhatan Lenape decent. I would love to intergate your organization and possible create a geneolgy of our family native american linegage. Please contact me @ MosleyTribe2014@gmail.com


    • Hi Dolores,

      I work alone, there is no organization, so can’t attend your powwow, but surely wish I could. I strongly encourage you to take that opportunity to bring together your family heritage and genealogy along with photos and stories for the tribe as a whole, and the members.

      Roberta Estes

  30. Well I am a realitive of chief bender he is my dads dad he was a chief of the cherrokee wolf clan in the l800s to 1990s. Before he started in baseball he was also a golden box glove chamipon his english name is joe stargell and his son is aubery wayne. Stargell I’m am wayne stargells daughter rachel elizabeth stargell I also did my reacearch to make shure it was all truee nothin missing I’m the granddaughter of chief bender

  31. Miriam long says:

    Trying to find my Cherokee second great grandmother nancy a prince and third great grandmother Margaret long.

  32. Jim Miles says:

    I’m researching my family history. We come from the Pamunkey tribe in Virginia. I found a portion of a document, but I have no idea what the title might be or where it came from. You might be familiar with it. The URL is http://www.geocities.ws/nj29thregiment/Miles.html
    This takes my fathers side of the Pamunkey Indians back to 1775. My grandfather was James Milor Miles, found on Page 4.
    Any follow-up comments you may have will be greatly accepted. It might help you as well.

    • Unfortunately, I don’t see any sources at all on this, or authorship information, so it’s impossible to determine if it is correct or not. I wish I could help more. You might look for trees elsewhere with the oldest ancestor info and see if they know about this site.

  33. Cathy says:

    If you are of Haudenosaunee descent Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca and Tuscarora tribes, please consider joining our VERY large and ACTIVE facebook group at https://www.facebook.com/groups/218083517254/

    • Zarifa Hill says:

      Are the tribes from Onondaga, NY and Lynchburg, VA connected in any way? I’m searching for the ancestors of my Grandmother, Lucille Bennett who was born in 1911. I know she was mixed and I believe it was her mother who was full blood native. She lived in Lynchburg, VA, married and became Lucille Massie but eventually moved to Syracuse, NY with my dad. I had pictures of her on a reservation near Syracuse with my brother when he was little but those pictures burned along with ever other picture and vcr tapes of my family. I have only 2 pictures of left that I got from an aunt on my mom’s side. My grandmother died in February 1999.

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  35. John Ortega Harding says:

    Roberta , I am one of Geronimo’s and Chief Victorio’s grandsons . I carry their DNA . If anyone is interested .

  36. Debra Winchell says:

    This discussion makes it clear that Native Americans can also be Racist. These status, federally recognized Native Americans don’t want to understand or admit that people who didn’t grow up in the same way also have a legitimate claim to their family history that also happens to be part of theirs. These disassociated people are also part of Native American history as a story of what happens to some Native people when they don’t go along with what the rest of their people. They deserve the opportunity to remember and honor their ancestors as well.

  37. JohnProvencio Ortega Harding says:

    I am a perfect example, we are Chiricahua Apache, because my great grandfather was lite skinned and had lite eyes we lied when the government troops came to inspect us. grandfather told them we were Spanish and he was fluent Spanish so they left us alone. We didn’t have to go on the train to prison camp for 27 and half years like the rest of our family. This has caused a major divide in our family for the last 135 years, hard to fix. I am a gggg grand son of Chief Victorio of the Mimbres, I have been told Geronimo was a grandfather, Chief Victorio was nephew to Mangus Coloradas, Mangus was father in law to Cochise. My cousin Ivan Padiila Chong is the gggg grandson of Chief Chihuahua. I would more than likely be a Chief today had we been left alone. For the last 20 years or so I have been trying to do what I can to heal this situation, I have made a lot of progress. One of the major problems is that alot of my cousins don’t know they are Native, that is heart breaking. A large portion of my family won’t talk to me because I brought this stuff out, this has always been Top Secret in our family. One of the major problems is that we have lived the Lie for so long that our history is being lost. What I do know from all this is that CREATOR planted me Chiricahua Apache, it was HIS WILL, if I want HIS BLESSINGS I must do HIS will and Live the culture, customs, spirituality, language that HE BESTOWED upon me and to pass on to my offspring. Not try to change my culture, this is the first order of business, then everything else starts falling into place. John Provencio Ortega Harding AKA Apache finder, AKA Ten Bears

  38. LN says:

    Why doesn’t someone just exhume and test an ancestor from the time the Saponi supposedly disappeared? The current test would only show relationships (broadly speaking) to known tribes, not allegedly extant people’s. What’s the earliest DNA sample from a Eastern tribe? Are there any samples from people tribes who lived during the 17th and 18th centuries? My direct ancestors (born 1754) were allegedly from a lost tribe, on their birth certificates, a non federally recognized tribe is listed (through not on their son’s birth certificate). It is useless for me to test though because I have more recent family members who were enrolled in an eastern tribe (on the Dawes rolls with somew current relatives having tribal membership).

    I do not want to know what my native admixture is, I want to know the admixture of my ancestors, and how that relates to known/ recognized tribes . Where they telling the truth?

    Oh btw my ancestors are buried in a well maintained cemetery, with prominent headstones. So are their researchers and anthropologist that have sequenced DNA from the forebeares of these “isolate” populations?

    • It’s not that simple. Through the NAGPRA law (google it) the tribes can prevent testing of any remains – and they have and do. As for private remains, I think that’s a great idea. Go right ahead.

  39. Becky Lyzen says:

    I grew up not knowing I was Native on my paternal grandmothers side (Martha Dingman). Later learned my parents are 4th cousins and native blood on both sides. Boursaws through my Mother. All central Michigan Ojibwa please help me. My Maiden name is Dowell if helps. I would like to prove I’m native so that can carry sacred feathers.

  40. John Provencio Ortega Harding says:

    There seems to be some HATERS on this site, Change your HEART or move on !

  41. Linda Davis says:


    I just happened on this site today by way of doing some Collins research. This may be a lot longer than most will care to read, but has been a journey with a bittersweet ending. So, if it is, just skip to the next poster.

    First, let me say, these forums are helpful in so many ways and I so appreciate them. If nothing else, maybe my post will help someone in their journey to find family through DNA, whether Native American or not.

    I had my father’s DNA tested just to try and connect to his adopted father’s family, of which he knew nothing about, other than that his mother’s first name “may” have been Henrietta, period. He and his sister were placed in an orphanage in Atlanta, Ga. between 1900 and adopted out sometime prior to 1910, as indicated by the 1910 Federal Census listed as adopted son and daughter. My Grandpa remembered the Orphanage and where it was located, thus taking my father there. The orphanage was said to have burned down. Upon research I found there was a fire, however, that particular fire stopped just short of the orphanage, right up to the street.

    Fast forward 30 years of my father, my sister and myself search every nook and cranny of any clue, only to have every door shut. The family that adopted him and his sister, happened to be my grandma’s grandfather.(Yes Grandpa married his adopted father and mother’s grand daughter! Yep, one of those.

    After trying every county in the state of Georgia, there still was no record to be found of an adoption, or any family connections to anyone. The results of the DNA test gave my father several matches, but just on the 12 marker test, which I have been told does not really help for genealogists. I am not savvy at all with the DNA specifics, however, what resulted in a journey that took me for a surprise of my life, allowed me to give my father the name and birth place of not only his father and her sister, but their parents and grandparents.

    One of the matches contacted my father and he had me corresponds with her and after 4-5 years of us collaborating our genealogical research notes, the match was able to locate my grandpa and his sister listed in the 1900 census of Missouri! I would have never thought to search so far away from Georgia for them. It stated that my grandpa’s sister was born in IT and he was born in MO, previously IT. They were living in Choctaw Nation IT, OK in 1900 and I did find my grandpa’s parents listed in the Choctaw Nation Marriage Records, however, they are not on the Dawes Rolls. But this is not the Native American blood that the DNA results turned up for Daddy.

    Seems, my Grandpa’s parents got divorced shortly after this census year and his mother returned home to Alabama where she was born. (The 1910 Census stated she was born in AL, his father in MO and another stated ARK.)Thus, the reason they were placed in the Orphanage in Atlanta, their mother moved in with one of her sisters who lived in Atlanta in 1900. When that sister died, she moved in with yet another sister, also in Atlanta. She was not able to care for the children, after her second sister died, so she placed them there. She apparently moved back to Alabama.

    So, back to the DNA results. My father’s last name is Snow. The test results showed about 7 or 8 matches of Snow lines. One of those matches, the one I corresponded with, and still do, was a Mackey, but we did not know how we connected. The correspondent recommended I submit the DNA to the Piqua Shawnee DNA Project. She was a descendant of Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket. Upon joining the project, I was told by the project, that the results of my father’s dna shows he was a 8th generation descendant of Chief Blue Jacket. Not through the name of a male but a daughter of Chief Blue Jacket.

    Knowing this, I have no desire to join a tribe, receive any benefits from the tribe, be recognized by the tribe, however, what I got from this was the ability to give my father, one week before he died, 2 yrs ago, the name of his grandparents and great grandparents, and that they were descended from Shawnee tribe. It is a guess that the man who was a Snow took Shawnee wife, or maybe was kidnapped in a raid or massacre and taken prisoner to live on the reservation and took a wife.

    Now, to the Collins line. I do not know if mine is one of these mentioned on this blog, however, I have a line of John Middleton, Sarah/Mary Dwight, Stephen Collins, Elizabeth Middleton Glenn/Glynn, William Ward, and Barrow families, all of which show up in Tyrrell Co., NC living in Edenton, NC located on the Chowan River and Albemarle Sound in the early 1700s to at least 1810. These families moved to SC, GA, TN, AL and KY.

    Ironically, none of these blood lines were blood to my Grandpa’s mother but she lived in Choctaw, AL. I discovered today, that in the War of 1812 the Ft. Mims, AL massacre was located in the same county as Grandpa’s mother homestead was. The Shawnee Chief Tecumseh led the massacre taking prisoners and killing a large amount of white men. These prisoners were taken to KY and later removed to OH to live on the reservation for 3 yrs and released. I do not know that this is where it all came together at this point, but I do find all these families so closely residing and migrating together through all of these states.

    The Snow line that my father comes from I can document back to Roane Co. TN in 1840 when my 2nd gg grand father Richard Snow, was born in 1840. The census in 1860 of Richard Snow living in MO states his father was born in NC. All of these DNA matches are descended to the same Snows. I just have not found Richard’s father, but I believe, he may have been one of the unknown names of children I have discovered in family trees. He has alluded me so long, but I will not give up until I find him.

    Now, instead of wanting to join a tribe or be accepted by a tribe, I personally think what I have obtained from the DNA is more than anything I could have asked for to be able to provide my father with his family as far back as I have gotten, as bad as I know he wanted to know before he left this world.

    Linda Snow Davis

    • Diana Mitchell says:

      Linda Snow Davis, your post brought tears to my eyes. It exemplifies why we all search: To give to our relatives one of the greatest gifts we can: their families recovered; their ancestors remembered. You have energized me to continue my own search. Thank you for sharing your post. I agree, we don’t do this to become a member of a tribe, but supporting them, and getting to know them can only enrich you and your family.

      Diana Mitchell

    • I think that’s the best gift one could ever receive.

      • Linda Snow Davis says:

        Diana Mitchell, thank you. I am so glad you are energized to continue your own search. Never give up. Even if you find nothing, you could pass down what you have found and possibly one of your descendants just may find what you are looking for to share with their families. Good luck in your journey.
        Linda Snow Davis

      • Linda Snow Davis says:

        Robertajestes, I know it was the best gift my father received, as he indicated for so long that he wanted to find out who his grandparentswere, and it gave me such a wonderful feeling I was able to share that with him.

    • Sia says:

      Thank you for your beautiful sharing. I am Creek, my family made it off the rez and back to Alabama. There was something going on between Arkansas and Alabama and tribal rolls. I wish I knew more about that.

      Anyway, I was blessed to dance at a Shawnee Pow Wow with descendants of those we fought alongside of all those years ago.

      Don’t give up!

  42. Linda Davis says:

    The post previously by me, I forgot to mention. the Snows from the dna matches, some of them were in AL close to Grandpa’s Snow’s mother when she lived there,and migrated to MO. All of these matches on the Piqua Shawnee DNA Project, are descendants through a female Blue Jacket. The other members are of males the carry the Blue Jacket name.

  43. Lonnie Thrift says:

    Hi, I can trace my ancestry to Chief Massasoit, the work has already been completed by my grand mother through familytree.org. I am 13 generations from him. I know he is highly documented with his many decedents. Any information that you need I will give email me at sadangelbleu@gmail.com

  44. Joshua Cane says:

    I am trying to ascertain whether something about John Two Guns White Calf. There is a picture circulating on Facebook that is showing him wearing a medallion that is a sword above what looks to be a crescent moon and a star below it, what is being implied by the poster is that that pendant is Islamic. What is that pendant? and its meaning, where did he get that? is that Native to his tribe?


  45. Perrie vasser Merced says:

    I’m a little confused. My great great grandfather is from Greece. His wife is from Danville Virginia. My grandfather registration card states that he is negro and native American citizen. Would that be from his mothers side?

    • It’s difficult to know what they were thinking and why. I’ve Native American Citizen used to mean not Native American but born in the US, so in your case I would say that designation is questionable under the circumstances.

  46. Anamaria Gonzalez says:

    I am one who is searching for more information about my native amercian roots and tribe affiliation. I am a B2a1-40% native American by Mother. I was adopted in New York City in 1971. How can I find more information about which tribe I or my mother could have come from? I have been told that it is possibly in New Mexico.

    Thank you

  47. Donna Patterson says:

    I have been told by my mother that her grandmother or great grandmother was Cherokee. We have her paternal family history recorded in the Sullivan – Mashburn line from North Georgia. 80 plus years family reunion in blairsville, ga. That is my maternal side, then her paternal side. The Cherokee is in the Brown family on my grandmother side. This Dna. Would be interesting for us, my mother is still living. She could help provide names.

  48. Victoria Reed says:

    My husband was adopted and the handwritten records indicate that his birth mother was a member of the Poarch Creek tribe in South Alabama. Adoption records are sealed. How can we research tribal logs. We have his birt mothers name.

  49. Jacob says:

    Hello- your website is great. I recently discovered that I am descended from the Shawnee/Chalakatha tribe in Virginia and Tennesee. I found Don Greene’s Shawnee Heritage series, and my ancestor, my 8x great grandmother, Sedanoe/Senadoe Chalakatha Greenwood was listed as 23/32 Chalakatha-Kishpoko-Shawano-Chalaka-Chickahominy-African-Metis. Could you clarify what this means. Fascinating, as I never new I had Native Ancestry. Another cool thing is that I have been able to find old photographs going back to my 4x great grandfather who has very Native American features, and passes them down to his son, who happens to look a lot like my grandfather.

    • I am not impressed with Don Greene’s work and I know of several lineages that are not correct. Given that, his blood quantum numbers are formed from incorrect data, so they would be incorrect too. I believe that is what those numbers are supposed to be.

      • Jacob says:

        Thank you for your reply. I do have other sources that confirm that that line is Shawnee, but as you said, I cannot be sure about the blood quantum numbers. What are some Shawnee genealogical works that are more accurate? Thank you.

      • I don’t know of any specifically. Most people simply focus on their line. Unfortunately, Don Green includes absolutely no references or citations, so without that, it’s in essence worthless because you have to do the research work all over for yourself.

    • Gordon Paciorek says:

      According to research I am also a grandson …you can email me @ centcon1@aol.com

      Gordon P. Paciorek (mother Carmen Fulk)

  50. Jacob says:

    Bummer. That’s a shame, because the earliest it would be would be like the late 1700s/early 1800s, and the censuses are really of no help then and I don’t know how I could access them. Do you yourself know much about the Greenwood Shawnee line. According to Don Greene, an Englishman married a Native and then their children all married other Indians. Are there any good websites that I could use in my research?

  51. jbower14 says:

    Hi- I do know much about the Wiccocomico Native American surname Tapp. The original surname was Taptico, which means something unknown in Virginia Algonquin. There is a will record for William Taptico, last king of the Wicocomico Indians (they were part of the Powhatan nation), I believe. In the book “Pocahontas’s People” by Helen Rountree, the surname was said to have been changed from Taptico after William Taptico died, by his wife Elizabeth Barrick Tapp, who was most likely English and wanted to make it more simple. At the time the Tapp/Taptico family had been living a very English lifestyle. Hope this information is helpful in some way!

  52. Jessie Drake says:

    My grandmother Sarah Jane Lee claimed to be 1/2 Choctaw. I have birth dates and places of her parents. I have indeed ran into brick walls. Any information we might exchange would be helpful.

  53. Ann Brascoupe says:


    The work you are doing here is very interesting. I am Canadian and have, from family information estimated that I am a 5th generation Algonquin from Quebec. I have no living direct paternal relatives that I am aware of. My father who passed away 4 years ago did not know his father (that I am aware of) and I have no male blood siblings.

    In Canada we have a governmental system of “tracking” Native Canadian Indians and if you are able to “prove” through birth records a Native connection you are issued a Native Status Card. I have one due to my tracing my great-grandfather’s Native lineage.

    This part of my Native lineage is unknown yet plays such a large part of my life in various ways. As I have some lineage knowledge down to my paternal great-grandfather and grandmother (Scottish). My father I believe went through the Canadian Residential School System and was affected in some manner. There is no one I can speak to as I have no connections at all on my paternal side even though I know which Reserve in Quebec my great grandfather was from – Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg in Maniwaki Quebec. As you can imagine with such an unusual last name I thought this would be a relatively easy process – it has been anything but 🙂

    So coming across your project I thought I would reach out and see if you would know of any Canadian projects similar to your own or have a connection who possibly may have done work researching the lineage of Native Canadian Indians?

    Many Thanks,
    Ann Brascoupé

  54. Christina says:

    I am puzzed. My husband’s DNA came back as Haplogroup Q-M3. I am seeing that this usually pertains to the Algonquian. Is that correct?

  55. No, Q-M3 is associated with lots of tribes, throughout both North and South America. Who he matches and their affiliation will be more important to you.

  56. Arcelia Avila says:

    My mothers registration certificate states she is
    Indigenous. I did an Ancestry DNA and it stated I am 52% Native American. What does that mean? My mother was born in a small
    Town Atemajac Jalisco. She has no information
    On her family history. I don’t know where to start to find my family roots. It would be wonderful to be able to share any new information with my family . Her fathers last name was Aguayo and her mothers last name was Tejada

    • You might want to subscribe to http://www.dna-explained.com and look through the postings on that blog. I would suggest that you also might want to test your mitochondrial DNA at Family Tree DNA, because that is inherited from your direct matrilineal line which comes from your mother’s mother’s mother’s line. The link to Family Tree DNA is on the sidebar of this blog and also dna-explained.

  57. John Provencio Ortega Harding says:

    Search the Catholic Church baptismal records in that area, write down the names in the grave yard, a number of those will be relatives, you can compare to church records, check out the Mormon Church records. Go there and look for relatives. If they lived in the mountains then they are Huichol Natives Americans.

  58. My name is C hristina Wilson I am the girlfriend of Basil Wiggis Verdin.who is 100% houma Indian from Terrebonne parish Louisiana he is now 65 he went to the 3rd grade at the houma Indian school before segregation was enacted please contact me my number is 985 791 4720 I have theancestry report on him too dating back 1800s

  59. Sandra D. says:

    I was adopted in California in 1960. Through DNA testing I have found relatives on the Chumash reservation in Santa Ynez. Birth records are closed in my state and I know there is the NACWA to help this. If you have information that would assist me in getting my original birth certificate so I can begin my journey to find my Native American family it would be appreciated. Thank you.

    • Hayat says:

      I wish you luck Sandra! One good Native friend of mine (Apache) grew up in a Denver orphanage & another (Yaqui) from San Francisco in foster care. Both – sadly – until they aged out. And my brother’s high school girlfriend was adopted by a well known NYC/CT writer. (She married an Indigenous man & works as a teacher in a Native school ❤ <3).

      Have you thought of going to the Nation (tribe) & asking elders if you are remembered? I'm sure they are very familiar w/ that circumstance of children who were adopted before the laws were changed regarding adoption outside of the Nations. God Willing/Insha'Allah you find who/what you want & deserve. Prayers. xx

  60. CHeryl teare says:

    Through passed down stories, photographs and research I am piecing together my Shinnecock history. My paternal great grandmother born circa 1863 was Shinnecock. Interested in discussing I can be reached at Cheryl.teare@gmail.com

  61. Madeline Wend says:

    Hello I believe I have Indian heritage but am unsure connecting as my great great grandmother born in Heflin Alabama in 1880 no records of her parents and it’s believed she was full blood or half blood

  62. Janet Hatfield says:

    My grandmother and great grandmother were included in the Indian Census that was taken in the 1930’s and 1940’s. I am not clear what information you need but could provide you with what you need once I am clear what you need.

  63. Robbyn Argilagos says:

    I am looking for any information regarding my direct matrilineal ancestress named Dollie Russell Gunter (b. 1782), married to Hawkins “Hawkey” Gunter. Two of Hawkey Gunter’s uncles (father’s brothers) married verified Cherokee wives listed as born in Cherokee Nation East, and their children were listed as being born there as well.
    There is a persistent tradition that my matrilineal forbear Dollie Russell was 100% Cherokee as well. Apparently the area she and her husband lived in what roughly is now East Tennessee/N. Alabama and ended up near present day Forsythe County, TN (one of their daughters was born there).
    I would like any information anyone might help with to check old registries or other resources for Dollie Russell (Gunter)/aka Dolly/aka Dorothy, born 1782, and any Cherokee resources. Clearly, some of the other Welsh Gunter men married Cherokee women in the same general area, and some of their children were listed as being born in Cherokee Nation East, so there could be real validity to the tradition that persists on my branch about Dollie Russell Gunter. I would like to solve this mystery

  64. Michael Little says:

    I’ve read with interest this blog in hopes of finding a trace of information about the Nottoway or Cheroenhaka people. My Great, Great Grandfather John Stinett applied to the Federal Government for acceptance as Cherokee through his Mother, Elmina Ball-Stinett and her Ball line. I’ve read the Federal reply denying him as Cherokee and stating his family is Nottoway Indian. I’ve since lost my copy of that letter as I deemed it an insult that they were saying there is Not-A-Way he is Indian, having no knowledge of the Cheroenhaka or Nottoway. So now I want to be educated. How could they say he is Nottoway? Do you have rolls or something that ties the Ball family to Nottoway? My Ball family traces back to counties surrounding Jamestown in the right times, but no smoking gun. I’ve done Ancestry DNA years ago for my Y-chromosome and my paternal line is Scots. I do have another Cherokee connection, but am looking specific to Nottoway relations. I am debating a new DNA but wandering if my sister would be a better test for mitochondrial to prove our Indian DNA? Help and recommendations are greatly appreciated. Proud to be Scot-Indian though not proven.

  65. Moore says:

    Hi Roberta,

    Thank you for the work that you are doing!! In researching my family, I found an ancestor in the census that was labeled as Indian in the 1910s. All of his children were initially labeled as Mulatto, but then it was crossed over and then replaced with Indian because he was the head of the house I suppose. They were living in St. Louis, Missouri of all places.

    In other census records prior they are labeled as mulatto or Black. Very confusing in trying to understand how the census taker decided the ethnicity of the family. I am not sure what this really means as I am trying to complete the picture of this side of the family while pulling together DNA. My father through DNA have some although very little Native American ancestry. This person we found is my father’s great, great, great grandfather.

    Just wondering what your thoughts are as a genealogist on this topic of how the census was done?

    • We find Native people often listed as mulatto, especially if the census taker was simply categorizing by looks. I have found Native or Native admixed people under every classification.

      • Hayat says:

        I grew up on the CT Shore & a little down the road was/is a very old colonial house that was listed in original records as owned by a free man of colour.

        Several years ago when the house was going to be torn down (for the McMansion horror overtaking the town vs disrepair) the town convinced the owner to preserve it – due to the fact that it was owned by a ‘free black’ citizen.

        However – a young male relative wrote in to a town community blog saying that his ancestor was really Native/Indigenous & provided some proof of that. Historians concurred that in this area the word(s) ‘of color’ was used to describe Indigenous men in the area then. (Fairfield County CT).

        I’m sure you know more about this than me – but thought you may be interested in the ancestry & terminology issue that unfolded when the house & outbuildings were almost demolished.

  66. Valerie Ramirez says:

    I did an ancestry DNA on both my parents, because I was trying to prove that we had native blood to them. My mom is 65% native and my father is 35%. I would like to find out what tribe we belonged to and if they still exist. My mom said that her grandmother was Cherokee or Apache mixed with other tribes. Is there a way to find out?

  67. Patrick Pynes says:

    Thank you for your excellent work and website, Roberta. I greatly appreciate it.

    I do have a specific mtDNA/autosomal DNA question: After 29 years of searching for the original (“maiden”) name of my direct ancestor Delilah Gentry, I finally have substantial circumstantial evidence of what her father’s name actually was. Because it is speculative, I will keep his name to myself. It is a great surprise: I will say that.

    However, although the name of Delilah’s father is speculative for now, I do know the mtDNA of Delilah’s mother, whoever she was, through two independent tests that were done through Family Tree DNA of direct female descendants of two women whom we hypothesized were both Delilah’s daughters. Delilah’s mother’s mtDNA is T*. The two mtDNA tests matched exactly, and also identified a third likely sister.

    Three of Delilah’s daughters were Elizabeth Gentry Heffington; Nancy Gentry Little; and Jerusha Gentry Spencer.

    Delilah and her husband Tyree Gentry were living on the Tugaloo River in Franklin County, Georgia, from about 1795 to 1806. According to oral traditions and primary historical documents, either Delilah and/or Tyree were of Cherokee descent. Tyree was closely related to David Gentry of the Hiwassee/Arkansas Cherokees, whose widow married Samuel Houston, a citizen of the Cherokee Nation (west), but not by blood….

    Now that I have a solid but unproven hypothesis for the name of Delilah’s father–mainly substantiated by written documents and oral tradition, but also based upon the mtDNA results–how do I “cross-reference” autosomal DNA evidence (a test of my own DNA) to see if this evidence supports the other evidence, and my hypothesis? Is it possible to do that with autosomal DNA evidence? I am at least eight generations “down” from Delilah Gentry, in an indirect line of maternal descent, of course.

    Thanks so much for your time. Let me know if I can reciprocate in any way.

    Dr. Patrick Pynes
    Flagstaff, Arizona

    • One way is that you can use the Advanced tool to see if you match someone with the same mtDNA as well as autosomal. However, I would be inclined to search in your matches for the surname, look at their trees, and see if you triangulate on any of the same segments.

      • Patrick Pynes says:

        Thank you. Two decades of traditional genealogical and historical research show very clearly that my ancestor Delilah, wife of Tyree Gentry, was a daughter of either John Kees, Sr., or of John Vann III (the Interpreter). This looks to be an “either/or” situation, and can only be resolved using DNA evidence. So far the genetic evidence is inconclusive: autosomal DNA evidence seems to show that I and other close relatives who descend from this couple are related to both the Kees and the Vann families.

        We do know these facts: Tyree and David Gentry were closely related, possibly brothers. David was married to Mary Due and (later) to Mary’s niece Diana Rogers. Following David Gentry’s death, she married Samuel Houston, a Cherokee Indian, but not by blood. (Houston’s adoptive father was John Jolly, a sibling of Mary Due and uncle of Diana Rogers).

        Several grandchildren of Tyree and Delilah had very close marriage and other social relationships to Treaty Party members in the Cherokee Nation, Arkansas, and Texas.

        For example, Delilah’s grandsons Samuel Gentry Heffington and James Heffington served in Company G, Second Cherokee Mounted Volunteers, CSA. Delilah’s grand-daughter Angeline Little went to school with the daughters of several Treaty Party members’ daughters in Sophia Sawyer’s Fayetteville (Arkansas) Female Academy, among them Susan Wheeler (niece of Major Ridge) and Flora Ridge (daughter of John Ridge). Some non-Indians served in the Second Cherokee Mounted Volunteers and some “white” girls also went to Sawyer’s school.

        The statements in the paragraph above are historic facts, not myths. They are proven by primary historical documents.

        However, I still have no proof to support my relatives’ claims that their Gentry ancestors were of Cherokee descent. The prevailing assumption of the moment is that pretty much anyone who claims to be of Cherokee descent but cannot prove it is the victim of persistent family mythology (“fake news,” in present day parlance)….If my relatives’ claims were not true, then their stories must have originated in their ancestors’ very close geographic and social proximity to mixedblood Cherokees and “Indian Countrymen” who also lived on or near the Tugaloo River circa 1800, in both Pendleton District, SC, and Franklin County, GA.

        Here I am referring to Bryan Ward, James Blair, Joseph and John Martin, Ellis Harlan, Ezekiel Buffington, Susannah Vann Crutchfield, Edward Wilkerson, and many others of that time and place. All of these people had documented Cherokee wives or other relatives. Since Tyree and Delilah are “undocumented” in terms of their Cherokee heritage, then the conventional wisdom would seem to be that any of us who are their descendants and who claim to have Cherokee heritage are therefore “frauds.”


  68. Wendi M. Petitt says:

    wendimm@hotmail.com I have one problem I’m unable to E-Mail You if at all possible could You Friend me on Facebook or Contact Me on Messenger My Name is Wendi M. Petitt I’m trying to figure out my Heratage I was raised In in The Foster Care System at the age of 1 1/2 Years Old Until I Was 19 Years Old And Married My Knight In Shining Armor We Have Been Married For 35 Year’s This Coming October Now I Have A Son Joe and His Wife Elizabeth and Our Granddaughter Asha Renee and I Want To Be Able To pass My Families Heritage My Dad Passed Away When I was 2 Weeks Old I have a little bit but not much on my Moms Side and Some On Dads Side!! Thank You

  69. Melissa bridwell says:

    I was born melissa georgeanne joiner and adopted and became melissa louise scott. I found my biological native american heritage but i am not allowed to claim it because of my adoption in 1983.

    • Hayat says:

      I wish you the best Melissa! One of my Native friends grew up in an orphanage in Denver (Apache) & another in foster care in SF (Yaqui) & my brother’s HS girlfriend (Cree) was adopted by a famous writer & married an Indigenous man & teaches in a Native school. Don’t give up Girl. Prayers. xx

  70. larry alderink says:

    I am wondering if i have native american blood in me it would be on my mothers side she was born in MI but have realitives in yakima WA her last name was cole helen and am just curious no one talks about it my parents passed and no one knows anything thank you

  71. Jackie Perritt says:

    My great grandparents were Quincy Cook and Gussie Cook. I have hit a wall with John Cook 1747. My research shows that there were cooks in native American line.

    • pamela tandy says:

      Hi Jackie, see the above discussion with Margaret Pearson from May 17 and 20. I have a John Cooke(e), Sr. in this same line, but much earlier::John Cooke Sr. aka Cook
      Born 3 Aug 1662 in Windsor, Hartford, Connecticutmap
      ANCESTORS ancestors
      Son of Nathaniel Cooke Sr. and Lydia (Vore) Cooke
      Brother of Sarah (Cooke) Baker, Lidia Cooke, Hannah (Cooke) Loomis, Nathaniel (Cook) Cooke Jr, Abigail (Cooke) Royce and Josia Cooke
      Husband of Sarah (Fiske) Cooke — married 14 Sep 1688 in Topsfield/Hartford, Connecticutmap
      DESCENDANTS descendants
      Father of Theophilus Cook

      Have you checked these lines on Wikitree?

  72. Frances Swolgaard says:

    My Great Grandparents Granville and Martha Cannon are listed on the 1900 Federal Census at Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory. They were listed as “W” and my DNA test results do not show any Native American, but I know for a fact that my Paternal Grandmother Frenchie Cannon was 1/4 Native (Cherokee/Choctaw) and was born in Cherokee, OK. Do you have any suggestions as to how I can find more information on why my Great Grandparents would be on a Cherokee reservation and why my results did not show that I am 1/16th Native. I thank you for any info you can provide.

    Frances Swolgaard

  73. Hi there – So I sent my father a DNA test for Christmas a few years back and we were surprised to find Native American DNA markers on at least three of his genes (which also fall on my markers as well as my son’s). My question: could the Native American genes have been related to the Saami’s of Scandinavia? We are highly Swedish/Norwegian and Finnish, I was just trying to figure out where could have come from as my family was among the later wave of European immigrants (1910’s or so) Thank you!

    • None of the major testing companies provide information as to Native DNA markers on specific genes, so I’m unclear as to what you’re referencing. You might want to take a look at the blog http://www.dna-explained.com.

      • Melonie Gerald says:

        When you upload to Gedmatch it gives you tribes that have DNA for. For example, my mother and father both have Lumbee , Miwok, and Colville in their admixture. I too have this as well as my daughters. Our DNA has NA % in both North and South America. My mother said her grandmother was full blooded Cherokee . Deducing the area my family is from and the fact that Lumbee was in our admixture solidifies that to me. I am currently looking for my NA heritage and look forward to learning more from this page . As you said, through historical and other situations heritage was stripped from people. I intend to find mine.

  74. Deborah says:

    My grandfather was an indentured servant in New York. His original name was Weesaw. Perhaps Pottawatomie. According to the DNA results I am over 60℅ Native American. How and where do I begin to locate his life before indentured servitude?

  75. Stephanie MCLeod says:

    I have been told by both of my father’s parent that great-grandmothers on both sides were full blooded. My grandfathers side I was specifically told we descend from the Pequot tribe in southern Connecticut. My grandmothers side is more blurry, the grandmother in question is 6 generations back from myself but not sure if it were Cree or Mohican-or Algonquin. I have names of my g-grandparents but nothing further back.

  76. Maggie Libra says:

    My name is Maggie. I have been on this journey for many years. See, my bio father was 1/2 Ogalala Lakota Sioux with their tribe that resides on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. His father, my grandfather, was full blood native born to Ruby (d. 3/2016) and G Grandfather Cy (deceased).
    I have a Great Aunt, sister to Grandfather , who became a nurse and sturdied mortuary science, was born on the Ogalala Lakota Rez in Pine Ridge, and served on a council there.

    I also have an Aunt daughter of Grandfather
    And a cousin who passed in utero, who was buried with full Lakota service.

    my bio dad was not a member of the tribe as like him, Grandfather left when he was little. I was fortunate enough to visit with grandfather once, but Bio dad would not give me his contact information and they went to Pine Ridge and Bio dad forbade me to go with, and they know about me, but he robbed me of the only opportunity to meet my grandmother Ruby, before she passed away.
    Since that has happened, I have dug as far as possible and done what I can to try to get myself and my children to be apart of the tribe so that a I may connect with a side of my heritage that I think is beautiful and has so much to learn from and I’d love to understand all of the traditions and intergrate into that side of my culture that I have been forced away from.

    Can you help? I don’t know what to do from here.
    This would mean the world to me. I have always wanted to know the other half of myself, but never had the key to unlock it.
    I can give you more info about names in a private correspondence. I don’t want to upset anyone’s privacy. Sorry for being so vague.

    Thank you so much,


  77. Anita Walter says:

    Hello! I’m Anita Walter and I am a direct descendant of Pocahontas and Chief Powhatan through two blood lines. I want to join the Powhatan Renape Indian Nation in New Jersey as they are the direct descendants of Chief Powhatan who fled Virginia because of the white settlers’ wish to wipe them out. I want to learn more about my ancestors’ culture, way of live, struggle against settler invasion, and so many other things about their everyday life and struggles. I think that the best way to honor my Powhatan ancestors is to join the Powhatan tribe but there are many obstacles that I must face and one of these is actually contacting the Powhatan Renape Indian Nation itself. A few years back, the Powhatan Renape Indian Nation were sadly relocated from their home on the Rancocus Indian Reservation but where they were relocated to and their contact information are unknown to me at this time. I have tried calling them at two phone numbers and sending emails to two email addresses but all of their contact information that is available is out dated and is from their old address on the Rancocus Indian Reservation. On the Powhatan Renape Nation’s website it states on the home page that the tribe continues to thrive and pass on the Powhatan Culture to the next generation in their new location, however as I mentioned earlier this new location is unknown to me at this time. If you have any idea or knowledge of them whatsoever and their contact information, or if you know anybody who you think might know please do not hesitate to let me know. I have already traced and proven my ancestry all the way back to Pocahontas’s grandparents and I desperately want to reconnect with my ancestor’s people. I am also of Cherokee descent through several blood lines from Kentucky, and possibly Tennessee. I appreciate your help and time. I am looking forward to hearing from you as soon as possible! Thank you!

  78. Trudy Coley says:

    I have no legal documents but my maternal grandmother was born Lona Bell Tapp, and her father was William Lloyd Tapp, his father was a William Tapp, his father was a Moses Tapp, his father a Vincent Tapp and Im sure you know the rest of the Taptico line.

  79. Kathleen Creel Leppert says:

    Thank you for this site, Roberta. I just read through all of the comments and was shocked at some of the comments. Please continue with your research, no matter the direction it takes, because all of us are just looking for our ancestors. Many of our ancestors had their heritage stripped from them and giving them a voice again, even for the briefest of moments, is a treasure.

  80. Thank you for your research, Roberta. I read through all of the comments and was a bit shocked at the animosity of some of them. Personally, I believe it very important to follow the trails of our ancestors and restore heritage stripped from them. To give them back a voice, albeit if only for a moment in time, to speak to us and tell us our stories is priceless. Keep up the search, no matter where the trails lead. Anyone who would try to throw up roadblocks and stop people from finding out where they came from is deeply concerning. Sunshine cleans.

  81. Zetta Mae Harris Baker says:

    My mother and father are Native Americans and our family go back to the 1500’s as far as we can tell. Everywhere we look we find more and more of our family. For some reason my father, Mother Grandmother Grandfather on both side decided to keep it from us. We go back to Chief Longknife ,. Blue Jacket, Tetobem Grand Sachem Quashawan, Grand Sachemm Quashawan, Grand Sahem Wyandance, Ebbonne Rebecca Wyandance and Native heritage that I could just keep going. My maiden name is Harris and the Harris side as well is full of Native Americans. I was cheated out of my Heritage, That was not my doings. That I am just leaning about with the help of my half sister, whom we lost, Family Search, Family Tree and My brother is a member of Ancestry. Would like to know why anyone would object to me finding out who I am. It was hidden for us. A BIG SECRET . All my life I have been told that I looked Indian and now I know I am. My Grandmother was a Gore and she really looked Native American, Because she was.

  82. Hello! I am a descendent of the Cherokee tribe in and around Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania area of eastern Virginia. I was adopted as an infant and did not have any information on my family until just recently. I registered on AncestryDNA and was quickly contacted by a woman who is my close cousin. She and I have since verified through photos, that I am in fact related to George Rowe, which somehow leads to Pocahontas. I’m not sure I really believe that part, but I am very interested in anything you might be able to help me with. I plan to apply for my membership card at the Cherokee nation building located here in Talequah, Oklahoma. If you are still in fact researching, please email me back! Thank you!

  83. Bernadette a rubio says:

    Hi my name is Bernadette ann Estes that is my Maiden name my grandfathers name was George Wayne estes my father was george Jr my uncle had an Indian card he passed i was wondering if you could lead me in the right direction to finding out how I go about getting a card my great grandfather George was raised on the reservation but I have no information my aunt wont tell the family anything about our great grandparents thank you

  84. Jeannette Jimenez Simmons says:

    What a great and wonderful project. Trying to figure out my heritage and what tribe my family belongs too is so crazy. I just know for decades my grandparents (may they rest in peace) and my parents tell about their native heritage and other struggles they went through. When the DNA kits came about I was leery but it was a start to confirm if our family truly was Native American Indian. Come to find out yes, the stories really came to life for me when my Moms test came back at 98% and my Dad 44% and myself at 59%. But again this has been so stressful and frustrating to figure out. –Thank again for such great information and articles you are posting.

  85. Joshua Butler says:

    I am having problems finding my tribe. My grandfather was taken as a baby from his tribe and placed with a Danish family to be raised. The government even issued a new birth records. Sadly my grandfather was made to be ashamed of his native blood. He passed a few years back. I desperately want to find my family and heritage I was robbed of. I have no leads as all those who know the details are now all dead. How can I move forward in my search?
    I just want to have a bepsi and learn my missing traditions.

  86. Richard Clark says:

    Aho, What a wonderful surprise to come across your work . I’m a registered Ponca tribe of Nebraska member with the Surname of Post , my Name is Richard Clark/Pale Chipmunk Roll #381-U03630 dob 3/20/66 . Hope my information helps with your research in some way. I’d be interested in what if anything you find but I understand you have to be so busy I honestly hope my info helps with your research in some way. Thank you for your time and energy involved
    Sincerely Richard Clark.

  87. Nikki Hammons says:

    I am willing to help, if you could help me I’ve got so far back connecting me to some names an tribes!

  88. Jessica Hoffman says:

    I’ve already taken a test via FTDNA . I have converted my ancestry test and took a MtDNA test through FT. I have traced my ancestor through my grandmother to Massasoit, Metacomet, Anne …. my Bailey line had notes Native American but I just figured it out this year. My DNA is too diluted to show up NA but my chromosome show Artic, Ameri, south and Meso Indian. I am researching the tree part .

  89. Whyte Wolf says:

    Hello, my grandmother was a Colbert and after researching for several years i’ve managed to trace her Ancestral lines to Chief James Logan Colbert. I have never done a dna test but i believe i have enough information to prove the lineage. Would you be so kind to email me so we can discuss this further?

  90. Megan McGee Bonta says:

    I LOVE this – my grandfather was told his last name was not “correct” in school, so he was given a new name which we carry on, but which has brought our attempts to trace our ancestry to a screeching halt. We know we are Chickasaw, that he was born near the North Texas Cherokee, and my husband is from Eastern Band Cherokee, but because my grandfather passed away young and never spoke about it, we have no connections at all and no benefits of community, just the legacy of what he faced, unsolved violence and “odd” shaped teeth. It’s hard to build any connection now (and seems so taboo, as I’ve also inherited my mother’s blondness) but any of the good and connection we could pass on is wonderful!

  91. Kristin Hughes says:

    I would like to find out what tribe my great grandmother was from her name was Sarah Davis and her grandfather was Robert D Davis., from western MD

  92. Jake Powell says:

    Isn’t there a book on Osceola that I can get. I’m one of Osceola grand children and I want to do a little more research on everything

  93. Cheresse hadley says:

    I’d love help finding my gmas roots

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