When using autosomal DNA for genetic genealogy, the X chromosome is a powerful tool with special inheritance properties. Many people think that mitochondrial DNA is the same as the X chromosome. It’s not.
Mitochondrial DNA is inherited maternally, only. This means that mothers give their mitochondrial DNA to all of their children, but only the females pass it on. So tracking mitochondrial DNA back up your tree, it goes to your mother, to her mother, to her mother, until you run out of direct line mothers on that branch. The mitochondrial DNA is shown by the red shading below. The Y chromosome is blue.
Mitochondrial DNA is not one of the 23 chromosomes you obtain from both of your parents.
The X chromosome is different. The X chromosome is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes. The 23rd pair is the pair that dictates the gender of the child. If a child has an X and a Y, it’s a male. Remember that the father contributes the Y chromosome to male children only. If the child has two X chromosomes, it’s a female.
The inheritance patterns for the X chromosome for males and females is therefore different. Men inherit only one X chromosome, from their mother, while women inherit two Xs, one from their mother and one from their father. In turn, their parents inherited their X in a specific way as well. All ancestors don’t contribute to the X chromosome.
In my paper published in the Journal of Genetic Genealogy (Vol. 6 #1) in the fall of 2010, in a paper titled Revealing American Indian and Minority Heritage Using Y-line, Mitochondrial, Autosomal and X-Chromosomal Testing Data Combined with Pedigree Analysis, in addition to other types of analysis, I analyzed my X chromosome and what it told me about where some of my Native and African inheritance came from.
At that time, the only company returning ethnicity information about the X chromosome was deCode genetics. My X chromosome showed that I carried Native American heritage on the X chromosome as well as on some other chromosomes.
I’m going to share the part of this paper involving the X chromosome and how it can be used genealogically and in particular, to identify candidates who could have contributed this Native and African ancestry.
Blaine Bettinger granted me permission to use 2 charts in the paper and again for this blog. Thanks much, Blaine. He originally published them on his blog, The Genetic Genealogist, in December 2008 and January 2009 in his blogs about how to use the X chromosome for genealogy.
The first chart shown below is the male’s X chromosome inheritance chart. You can see that he only obtains his X chromosome from his mother who inherited it from both her mother and father, but only from some of her ancestors on either side.
The next chart is the female’s inheritance chart. She obtains her X from both of her parents.
Blaine color coded these, pink for females and blue for males, so I was then able to quickly use them to fill in my ancestor’s names. I know this next chart looks messy, but it’s what I did and I still refer to this regularly. I don’t’ expect you to READ this, I expect you’ll DO something like this with your own pedigree chart. So excuse the look into my messy closet:)
I numbered the slots so that I could work with them later.
The results were quite surprising. The first thing that became immediately evident is that I didn’t have to worry about a few lines. On the chart below, you can see that my mother’s German lines could be immediately eliminated, because we know they were not the source of the Native American heritage.
This leaves only three individuals on the mother’s side as candidates for Native ancestry. Those are the numbered slots between the German lines.
The people below correspond to the numbered slots above. See, I told you that you didn’t need to read the chicken scratch chart.
5 – Naby (probably short for Abigail), last name unknown but may be Curtis, born in Connecticut in about 1793.
7 – Capt. Samuel Mitchell, born probably about 1800, possibly in Kittery, Maine or possibly in Europe, mother unknown. This line is probably eliminated.
8 – Captain Mitchell’s wife, Elizabeth, last name unknown
Using the pedigree chart, we narrowed the mother’s side from 21 possible slots to 5 with one more probably eliminated. Of these, mitochondrial DNA sampling of the descendants of the two women whose last name is unknown would produce the answer to the question of maternal Native or African ancestry.
The father’s side is more complex because many of his ancestors immigrated in the colonial era. Candidates for Native ancestry are as follows:
20 – Mary, wife of John Harrold (Herrald, later Harrell), born about 1750, died in 1826 in Wilkes County, NC. She was rumored to have been Irish.
21 – Michael McDowell, born 1747 in Bedford Co., Va. – his mother is unknown. His father was a second generation immigrant who lived in Halifax and Bedford Counties in Virginia.
22 – Isabel, wife of Michael McDowell, probably born about 1750, surname unknown, located in Virginia.
27 – Elizabeth, born about 1765, wife of Andrew McKee of Virginia.
28 – Agnes Craven is the last slot on the chart, but not the last in the line. Her father was Col. Robert Craven born 1696 in Delaware and was well to do. His mother is unknown. Robert’s wife was Mary Harrison, born in Oyster Bay, New York to Isaiah Harrison and Elizabeth Wright. These lines appear to reach back to Europe but are unconfirmed, probably eliminating these lines.
30 – Phoebe McMahon, wife of Joseph Workman, born 1745 York Co., Pa, daughter of Hugh McMahon, mother unknown.
31 – Gideon Faires’ mother was Deborah, born 1734, possibly in Augusta Co., Va.
32 – Sarah McSpadden’s father was Thomas McSpadden born 1721 in Ireland, eliminating this line. Sarah’s mother was Dorothy Edmiston whose father was born in Ireland, eliminating that line. Dorothy’s mother was named Jean and was born in 1696 but nothing further is known.
33 – Martha McCamm, born before 1743, wife of Andrew Mackie of Virginia, parents unknown.
On the father’s side, we began with 13 slots, positively eliminating one and probably eliminating a second, leaving 11. Of these, 7 could be resolved on the maternal line by mitochondrial DNA testing. Taken together, this side of the pedigree chart is a much better candidate for both Native and African DNA sources. Notice all of the females who have no surnames. These are excellent places to look for Native ancestry. On my chicken scratch version, these are highlighted in yellow.
While the X chromosomal pedigree chart analysis is not the perfect scenario, the pedigree chart has 128 slots. Using the X chromosome narrows the candidates to 34 slots. Genealogy narrowed the slots to 15 and focused mitochondrial DNA testing could narrow them to 6. Further genealogy research on those ancestors could potentially eliminate them by placing them “over the pond” or by discoveries which would facilitate DNA testing.
Marja and Me
You might recall that Marja and I are also related on our X chromosome. In this case, since she is from Finland, the probabilities are exactly the opposite. It’s much less likely that our connection is on my father’s or mother’s British Isles lines, and much more probable that it’s through my mother’s German lines. The early colonial settlers tended to be from the British Isles and certainly the people filling the X chromosome slots from my father’s side appear to be, with names like McDowell, McSpadden, etc.
Mother’s Anabaptist line (Brethren) is the German grouping through my mother’s father and descends from France and Switzerland,although these particiular lines don’t appear to have become Brethren until after immigrating to America. Marja also has other matches with people from the Anabaptist project.
Those end-of-line people are:
- Barbara Kobel – born 1713 probably Scholarie Co., NY
- Anna Maria Deharcourt – born 1687 Muhlhofan, France, died Oley Valley, Berks Co., Pa., probable parents Jean Harcourt and wife, Susanna
- Veronica – wife of Rudolph Hoch, born 1683 Basel, Switzerland, died 1728 Oley Valley, Berks Co., Pa.
- Susanna Herbein – born 1698, Switzerland, father Jacob, died 1763 Oley Valley, Berks Co., Pa.
- Jacob Lentz – born 1783 Wurttemburg, Germany, died 1870, Montgomery Co., Ohio
- Fredericka Moselman – born 1788 Wurttemburg, Germany, died 1863 Montgomery Co., Ohio
Mother’s Dutch line is eliminated, because it’s through her father’s father. Marja and I thought that might be a possibility, but we can see from this chart that it is not. My father also has a Dutch line that was eliminated because it came from his paternal line.
Mother’s Lutheran Palatinate line, end-of-line ancestors show below, is though Mother’s maternal line.
- Johann Jacob Borstler – born about 1659 Beindersheim, Bayern, Germany
- Anna Stauber – born 1659, Schaeurnheim, Germany, father Johannes Stauber
- Johann Peter Renner – born 1679, Mutterstadt, Bayern, Germany
- Anna Catherina Schuster – born about 1679 probably in Mutterstadt, Germany
- Maria Magdalena Schunck – born 1688 probably Mutterstadt, Germany, father Johann George Schunck
- Johann Martin Weber – born about 1700 Mutterstadt, Germany
- Rudolph Sager and wife Elizabetha – born about 1669 Ruchheim, Bayern, Germany
- Rosina Barbara Lemmert – born 1669 Mutterstadt, Bayern, Germany
- Anna Blancart – born 1642 Mutterstadt, possibly French
- Johann George Hoertel and wife, Anna Catharina – born about 1642, Mutterstadt, Bayern, Germany
- Matthaus Matthess – born 1695/1715 Rottenback, Bayern, Germany, wife unknown
- Anna Gerlin – born 1697, Windischerlaibac, Bayern, Germany
- Johannes Buntzman – born 1695/1720 Fulgendorf, Bayern, Germany
- Barbara Mehlheimer – mitochondrial line J1c2 – born 1823 Goppsmannbuhl, Bayern, Germany, mother Elizabetha, unmarried
Note that the mitochondrial line is indeed one of the lines that contributes to the X chromsome inheritance path, but only one of many.
So Marja, it looks like we have to be related through one of my British Isles ancestors, listed in the first part of this article, or from one of Mother’s two German groups. Personally, I’m betting on the German groups, but you never know. DNA is full of surprises.
The good news is that my mother’s information is also at GedMatch, along with mine and Marja’s, so by process of elimination, we can at least figure out whether to focus on the pink or the blue side of my chart.
Today, downloading your raw results to GedMatch, combined with Blaine’s X charts above, is really the only good way of working with X chromosome matches. Please note that only Family Tree DNA with their Family Finder test or 23andMe allow you to download your raw data file so that you can upload it to GedMatch. Ancestry does NOT allow you access to your raw data.
I’m planning to package this article as a pdf file and send it to my X chromosome matches. You can substitute your information for mine and do the same thing. Hopefully, your matches will then understand the X chromsome, its unique inheritance properties, and will provide their X end-of-line ancestors for you as well.
If you’d like to take a DNA test, click here.
Wow! I will have to read this a few times for it to sink in but it is awesome information. Thanks Roberta.
I came up on this post today via a google search while working on my genealogical history (a project I began undertaking as a gift for my Father and Aunt about a year ago). One of the stories passed on my by dad to me (as well as from my grandfather and his father to him) was that we had Native ancestry, believed to be Choctaw. I’ve long been curious about this aspect of my lineage and as I began to put together my family tree I also began searching for any crumbs of information about this mysterious heritage. Was it real? or long-held family lore? I discovered that many other descendants of distant branches of my paternal lineage had also been told the same thing – that we have Native ancestry – the two tribes mentioned were Choctaw (predominantly) and Cherokee . Obviously, it’s incredibly difficult to trace this lineage given the horrific way in which the Native people’s were treated. But I intend to search for answers as long as I’m able — it matters to me, even if I can’t quite put my finger on why this particular question is so very important to me.
So, imagine my surprise to discover, when searching today, this post that included the names of my 6x’s great grandfather, Michael McDowell and his wife, Isabel, of Virginia. I know that means very little in terms of finding the answers I seek, but I’m wondering if you have any advice or direction in which to point me as I continue this quest?
Thank you in advance for taking the time to read this
Hey, we’re cousins. I’m sending you an e-mail.