William Hatcher, Indian Trader

William Hatcher of Virginia and his sons were Indian traders.  Of course, those words come with a whole passel of baggage.  That meant that they provided much needed services between the Native people and the colonial settlers.  It also meant that the Hatchers, if they were like other traders, provided liquor to the Indian people.  Not that the Indians didn’t like it, they did, all too much, and alcohol and its affects would be a large part of what devastated the Native American population.

Being a trader also meant that very personal alliances were formed, often sealed by “a kiss,” so to speak.  Traders had wives and children within the tribes, sometimes in multiple villages and tribes.  Many also had their European wife too, back home, wherever that was.  A few of the traders actually made their full time home with the tribes and in essence, lived with, were adopted by and “became” as Indian as a white man could.

This wasn’t the case with the Hatchers, as they clearly retain their property in Virginia, but Edward Hatcher acknowledged his daughter, Sarah Hatcher, an Indian girl.

But there is a darker side too.  Indian traders traded in Indian lives.  Of course, the Indian slaves were provided to them by the very Indian tribes they traded with.  Capture and death or enslavement was part of the Indian war culture, so ti was nothing new.  What was new was that with a bottomless market for slaves, warfare was introduced for the purpose of capturing other Native people, so slaves were no longer the results of warfare, but had become the driving purpose behind attacks.

What this tells us is that Indians from outside the region of unknown tribal provenance will be found in Virginia and all of the early colonies.

From the Hatcher family website:  http://hatcherfamilyassn.com/index.php

** Henrico Co, VA Wills and Deeds 1677-1705, p.216, 16 Jan, 1681: An agreement between Edward Hatcher, Thomas Shippey and John Davis to go on a trading expedition among the Indians.

** Henrico County, Virginia, Wills and Deeds, 1677-1705
Compiled by Benjamin B Weisinger III, p.222

Edward Hatcher for love & affection to my daughter Sarah Hatcher, an Indian girl, Kate. 1 Aug. 1682
Wit: Sam Knibb, Ben Hatcher
Signed: Edward (E) Hatcher
Recorded 1 Aug. 1682

** Henrico County, Virginia
Record Book #5 1688-1697, p. 532
LDS Film 31770
Transcribed by Cecil Q Larsen

Henrco. County December the first AD 1694
Heno. Cty.

Whereas I am credibly Informed that Edward Hatcher Senr in Company ot Joseph Tanner did on Monday night last being the 20th of this instant call at the House of Wm Puckett & that there the sd Edward Hatcher Senr. did report & divulge on his certaine knowledg that the late Mrs. Bannister & all her family were cut off by Indians & that some of them were Hanged up in Trees by the Jaws others lying Dead on the Ground and in pticular Jack came last an Indian was Cutt into four quarters. And not being there therwith content ye sd Hatcher & Tanner did Raise divers of the Horse & foot pretending they had authority to do, who by virtue of the sd Reports & false pretences did meet in Armes at the sd Wm Pucketts the next day expecting further orders. Which sd False reports are directly contrary to & in Contempt of the 91 Act of Assembly in ye Printed Laws & to ye manifest Affrighten & Terror of divers of their Majties. good subjects.
These are therfore in their Majties. names to Will & require you forthwith to cause the sd Edwd. Hatcher Senr. & Joseph Tanner to make their __soual(?) appearance before me to answer wt. shall be objected agt. them or either of them concerning ye premises. And that you sumon for evidence in the premises Wm Puckett & Anne his wife, James Westbrook, Peter Ashbrooke senr. Edward Tanner, Tho. Edwards & Thomas Chetham who all Likewise forthwith to appear & give in their evidence accordingly & hereof you are not to fail at also to make returne of this Warrant as you answer the contrary dated under my hand this 23 day of Augt. Anno 1694.
Pet. Field
To ye Sher. of Heno. Cty. or his Deputy

** Library of Virginia
Goochland Co Chancery Court online documents
075-1754-002
Transcribed by Nel Hatcher

The Deposition of Robt Napier aged Eighty ffive —- being Examined & Sworn Saith that between fifty & Sixty years ago Capt John Lydall Jr went to Henrico & he bought of one Edward Hatcher an Indian woman named Bettey wch he called Betty Hatchor & she had a reputed Daughter Called Sarah Hatcher wch was the reputed mother of Indian Jack Hatcher wch Said Indian Bettey was brought in to this Collony by the Said Edward Hatcher an Indian Trader & sold by him to Serve according to Law this Depon?t further Saith that he bought of Edward Hatcher an Indian Trader of the same company an Indian boy between Fourteen[?] & Sixteen[?] years of age & that he Expected he was to Serve only to the age of thirty one or thirty three to the best of my remembrance & further this Depon?t Saith not

[signed] R Napier

Janu?y 5th 1753
Taken before us
Sam?l Jordan
John Cobbs

Posted in Traders | Leave a comment

South Carolina Indian Traders 1750-1754

The study of traders is important to the study of Native American tribes and ancestors.  Most, if not all, traders established Native relationships, and by that, I mean marital or intimate relationships.  What that means, exactly, depends on the culture and time times.  It can mean anything from the Native cultural tradition of providing guests with a bedpartner for the night to traders who virtually forsook the white world and lived exclusively with the Native people when they weren’t back east trading their wares.

What this means to us today is that it’s very likely to find Native people who would carry the DNA of traders.  This of course has nothing to do with their “Nativeness,” because at that time in history, the Native people made no distinction between fully Native and half Native and half white.  You were what your mother was, and that was Native.  Therefore, it would not be surprising to find Native people, enrolled or not enrolled in Federally recognized tribes, that if they were to test their Y DNA, would carry the DNA of traders, even though today their surname might be something entirely unrelated.

I found a list of traders in two locations, here and here.

The source for the traders is the “Colonial Records of South Carolina: Documents Relating to Indian Affairs 1750-1754” by William McDowell.  Of course, there were traders from Virginia beginning in the 1600s, and from NC after that.  These SC traders are a drop in the bucket, but still, we do have some compiled names, which is more than we have from Virginia or NC

The second link provides additional information, where known, about the traders.

Associated Trader profiles and genealogy information are found here.

This article describes the vast interrelationships of family and politics of traders and Native people.

Traders to the Catawbas

  • Robert Steel
  • Robert Tool
  • Mathew Toole

Licensed Traders to the Cherokee from Carolina

  • James Adair
  • The Augusta Company
  • James Baldridg
  • Charles Banks
  • William Bates
  • James and Thomas Beamer
  • Samuel Benn
  • Robert Bunning
  • John Butler
  • Cornelius Daugherty
  • Anthony Dean
  • David Dowey
  • John Downing
  • John Elliott
  • Robert Emory
  • Robert Goudy
  • Ludowick Grant
  • ? Haines
  • John Hatton
  • John Hook
  • Bernard Hughs
  • Bob and John Kelly
  • Anthony L’Antignac
  • John McCord
  • David McDaniel
  • David McDonald
  • William McDowel
  • James Mackie
  • William McTeer
  • James Maxwell
  • James May
  • Daniel Murphy
  • Joseph Oliver
  • Bryan Sallamon
  • Abraham Smith
  • Richard Smith
  • John Williams

Carolina Traders to the Chickasaw

  • John Buckles
  • John Campbell
  • Cambell and Maccartan
  • Jeromy Courtonne
  • Courtonne and Brown
  • John Highrider
  • Robert Vaughan

Carolina Traders to the Choctaw

  • John Buckles
  • John Nellson

Licensed Traders to the Creeks from Carolina

  • Ephraim Alexander
  • The Augusta Company
  • Isaac Barksdale
  • ? Brown
  • Patrick Brown
  • Rae Brown and Company
  • Nicholas Chinery
  • Daniel Clark
  • John Coller
  • ? Cossens
  • Samuel Elsinore
  • John Eycott
  • ? Fitz
  • Stephen Forrest
  • George Galphin
  • James Hewitt
  • George Johnston
  • John Kennard
  • John Ladson
  • ? McCay
  • Lachland McGillvery
  • George McKay
  • Lachlan Mackintosh
  • Alexander McQueen
  • Timothy Millin
  • ? Nowley
  • Moses Nunes
  • John Pettycrew
  • John Rae
  • Peter Randle
  • Walter Rode
  • Acton Rowley
  • William Sludders
  • John Spencer
  • Joseph Wright

Traders to the Savannahs

  • Enoch Anderson
  • Richard  Anderson
  • William Anderson
  • John Anderson
  • ? McKinnie

Interpreters of Various Indian Groups (1750-1754)

  • Mary Bosomworth, a Creek woman married to a colonist.
  • ?  Brannan
  • Edward Broadway
  • Robert Bunning
  • James Gaddes
  • James Germany
  • Mr. ? Kelloch
  • Joseph O’Connor
  • Aaron Stevens
  • Samuel Thomas
  • William  Thompson
  • ? Wiggan

This list is also not exhaustive, as I’m aware of several early Virginia traders whose names are absent here.  Please feel free to add names of traders along with sources in the comments.

Hat tip to Elaine for this link.

Posted in Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Savannah, Traders | 1 Comment

1765 North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia Map

NC SC Georgia 1765

This 1765 map of North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia shows the locations of Native tribes and villages.

Georgia 1765: Mintz, S., & McNeil, S. (2013). Digital History. Retrieved 26 Feb. 2014 from http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/

Hat tip to Yvonne for this map source.

Posted in Georgia, Maps, North Carolina, South Carolina | Leave a comment

Mi’gmaq/Mi’kmaq Talking Dictionary Project

The Mi’gmaq/Mi’kmaq  Talking Dictionary Project is developing an Internet resource for the Mi’gmaq/Mi’kmaq language.  You can take a look here.

I am particularly fond of the Songs.  Native history is important to preserve, including the stories.  Take a look at that section as well.  Traditional culture is historically conveyed through stories.

Each headword is recorded by a minimum of three speakers. Multiple speakers allow one to hear differences and variations in how a word is pronounced. Each recorded word is used in an accompanying phrase.  This permits learners the opportunity to develop the difficult skill of distinguishing individual words when they are spoken in a phrase.

Thus far they have posted over 3500 headwords, a majority of these entries include two to three additional forms.  More will be added as they are recorded.  Words on the site are considered complete today.

 

Posted in Micmac | 4 Comments

Osceola, Creek and Seminole Leader

Osceola George Catlin

Osceola painting by George Catlin.

James McQueen was a Scots-Irish fur trader, the first to trade in 1714 with the Creek in Alabama.  He became closely involved with the Creek and married into the tribe.  James McQueen was the great-grandfather of Osceola, legendary Seminole leader.

Thomas Woodward, in 1859, reminiscing about the Creek in the book “Woodward’s Reminiscences of the Creek, or Muscogee Indians,” said the following:

James McQueen was the first white man I ever heard of being among the Creeks. He was born in 1683-went into the Nation in 1716, and died in 1811. He married a Tallassee woman. The Tallassees then occupied a portion of Talladega county. In 1756 he moved the Tallassees down opposite Tuckabatchy, and settled the Netches under the chief Chenubby and Dixon Moniac, a Hollander, who was the father of Sam Moniac, at the Tallassee old fields, on the Tallasachatchy creek. McQueen settled himself on Line creek, in Montgomery county. I knew several of his children–that is, his sons, Bob, Fullunny and Peter. Bob was a very old man when I first knew him. He and Fullunny had Indian wives. Peter, the youngest son, married Betsy Durant. They raised one son, James, and three daughters, Milly, Nancy and Tallassee. The Big Warrior’s son, Yargee, had the three sisters for wives at the same time, and would have taken more half sisters. After Peter McQueen died, his widow returned from Florida and married Willy McQueen, the nephew of Peter, and raised two daughters, Sophia and Muscogee, and some two or three boys. Old James McQueen had a daughter named Ann, commonly called Nancy. He called her after the Queen of England, whose service he quit when he came into Nation. Of late years it was hard to find a young Tallassee without some of the McQueen blood in his veins.

Ann McQueen was the daughter of James McQueen and an Indian woman.  Peter McQueen, a prominent Creek leader and warrior, was either the brother or uncle of Ann McQueen.  Ann McQueen married Jose Copinger and they had daughter Polly, who married English Trader William Powell.  To Polly and William, a son, Billy Powell was born in 1804.  Billy, also known as Osceola, became an influential leader of the Seminole in Florida, even though he was raised as a Creek by his mother.  In the matrilineal culture of the Creek people, the father’s heritage did not matter, the child was raised in the clan of the mother.

Ann McQueen was half Creek.  Her daughter  Polly was one quarter Creek.  Osceola was one eighth Creek, although in Creek culture, he was Creek, an all or nothing proposition, according to the clan of the mother, and that was all that mattered.

In 1814, after the Red Stick Creek were defeated by United States forces, Polly took Osceola and moved with other Creek refugees from Alabama to Florida, where they joined the Seminole. In adulthood, as part of the Seminole, Powell was given his name Osceola (/ˌɒsˈlə/ or /ˌsˈlə/). This is an anglicized form of the Creek Asi-yahola (pronounced [asːi jahoːla]); the combination of asi, the ceremonial black drink made from the yaupon holly, and yahola, meaning “shout” or “shouter”.

In 1837, Osceola was deceived when he went for peace talks in St. Augustine and captured by government soldiers and transferred to a fort in SC.

George Catlin and other prominent painters met the war chief and persuaded him to allow his picture to be painted. Robert J. Curtis painted an oil portrait of Osceola as well. These paintings have inspired numerous prints and engravings, which were widely distributed.

Osceola died only 3 months later, at Fort Moultrie, Charleston, SC, of either infected tonsils or malaria.

It’s rare to have an image of an early Indian chief.  Of Osceola, we have at least four.

Osceola 1838 Lithograph

Osceola 1838 lithograph.

Osceola Robert Curtis

Osceola by Robert Curtis

Osceola Catlin graphite

Osceola Catlin graphite

You can read two other articles about Osceola here and here.

Posted in Creek, Seminole | Leave a comment

Bluejacket Reunion with a Tomahawk

I want to thank Carlyle Henshaw for this wonderful article.  When I asked him for permission to publish, here’s what Carlyle had to say.

“I really had fun researching that article.  The three Bluejacket brothers that establish Bluejacket Crossing were George, Henry and Charles.  Henry was my great great grandfather.  The three brothers were grandsons of Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket, 1737-1808.  He was the last principal war chief of the Shawnee Tribe of Indians.  We have 15 members in our PekowiBlueJacket Project.  All trace to Blue Jacket genealogically.  We all descend from the three brothers via DNA.  Nine of us have Family Finder.  Four males have fathers who are named Bluejacket and all match each other.  One is haplogroup Q and three are Q1a3a1.  All in all, everyone matches up in the Blue Jacket line, genetically and genealogically.  We have sixth, seventh and eighth generations from Blue Jacket represented.”

A REUNION with a TOMAHAWK

by Carlyle Hinshaw

Twin Bridges State Park — On July 1, 2001, the Shawnee Indian Blue Jacket family held its biennial reunion at this lovely place eight miles southeast of Miami, Oklahoma. The picnic was comprised of 60 relatives and other Shawnee friends and two fine Ottawa County Coon Hounds who know a Shawnee repast when they see, er, smell one! Blue Jackets from the Cherokee Nation (Cherokee Adopted Shawnee), Eastern Shawnee Tribe and Shawnee Tribe gathered to celebrate their long, illustrious history. Several excellent stories arose and are being told as time allows for the telling.

Robert Harry Withrow, Jr., of Kanab, Utah, brought a Pipe Tomahawk used by and handed down through, his family from Shawnee days in northeastern Kansas Territory during the middle 1800’s. Robert also brought along the story of the Pipe Tomahawk.

On November 30, 1831, a group of 334 Shawnees, including families of Chief John Perry, Henry and James (Jim) Blue Jacket, Peter Cornstalk and John Woolf arrived at the Shawnee Agency in Kansas after a three month “Trail of Tears” from Allen County, Ohio. Most of the adults rode horseback and the children in baggage wagons. These Wapaghkonetta and Hog Creek Shawnees had ceded (August 8, 1831) their homelands to the U. S. Government for 100,000 acres within or contiguous to, the existing Shawnee Reserve south of the Kansas (Kaw) River. The following year, 24 Shawnees of the River Huron in Michigan Territory made their trek to the new Shawnee country. In 1833, 14 more followed suit and in 1839, the total of River Huron Shawnees in the Shawnee Reserve was 38. (Louise Barry, THE BEGINNING OF THE WEST, p. 223-24, Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, 1972).

The new Shawnee lands were however, smack dab in the middle of the great western migration. Starting with a fur party path in 1827 (Sublette’s Trace), several trails headed up in the Independence, Missouri – confluence of the Kaw and Missouri rivers area and the main trace of the Oregon California Road crossed Shawnee lands south of the Kaw. Westward Ho traffic steadily increased and reached a crescendo after the discovery of gold in California in 1849. Settlement along the various trails began and Indian lands became more and more desirable to emigrants wanting to establish roots.

Treaty of 1854

Successful in their continual efforts to displace Indians, the U. S. Government had Shawnee leaders travel to Washington DC and sign a treaty on May 10, 1854, ceding 1, 600,000 acres of their land for 200,000 within the same area. Now that was a hell of a deal for the governmental’s! Shawnee signers of the document included: Joseph Parks, Black Hoof (was he still around?), George McDougal, Silverheels, Paschal Fish, Long Tail, George Blue Jacket, Graham Rogers,  Wa-wah-che-pa-e-kar (or, Black Bob), Tooly and Henry Blue Jacket. Witness’s to the signatures included Agent Benjamin F. Robinson and Interpreter Charles Blue Jacket. Each Shawnee was awarded, in severalty, 200 acres and that included Absentee Shawnees and Adopted Shawnees.

BLuejacket crossing

Hughmongous tracts of lands immediately became available for settlement and many new areas were incorporated, including Lawrence in 1854 and Eudora in 1857. German settlers purchased land for the latter town from Paschal Fish, who, along with John Blue Jacket, had been assistant gun and blacksmiths for the Leavenworth Agency in 1837. Quick to take advantage of this new situation, the Blue Jacket brothers, Henry, George and Charles, went into the hotel and ferry business. George and storekeeper William “Dutch Bill or Billy” Greiffenstein incorporated the town of Sebastian, six miles SE of Lawrence in the SE1/4 of the SW1/4 of Section 12 – Township 13 South – Range 20 East. The town did not survive and is not shown on modern maps. Henry died at Blue Jacket’s Crossing of the Wakarusa River on May 3, 1855, leaving his wife, Eliza, with six children and expecting a seventh. The latter was born in early 1856.

On the afternoon of May 19, 1855, the first steamboat to ply the Kansas River, the EMMA HARMON, left Kansas City en-route to Topeka and other way landings. Stopping to re-supply wood around noon the next day, they slipped into the stream again and almost immediately were hailed by an Indian wanting a tow up river for his flatboat. They stopped, made the small boat fast and proceeded west up river. The flatboat had just been made by Tooly, a Shawnee who had operated a ferry where the Delaware River, coming from the north, joined the Kaw between Lawrence and Topeka. Upon reaching the confluence of the Kaw and Wakarusa, they cast the Indian loose in his craft. Amidst cheering and waving from the passengers, the red man poled his way up the smaller stream. That Indian boat captain had to be one of two cousins, both strapping 21 year olds, Stephen S. Blue Jacket, eldest son of Henry, or William George Blue Jacket, eldest son of George! Thus began operations of Blue Jacket’s Ferry. (Kansas Historical Quarterly, V. 6, p. 17-19)

bluejacket ferry

Civil War

The Free State – Slave State concept became an overriding one at this time, as anti-slavery Kansas Jayhawkers actively worked with the underground railroad bringing freedom to many and pro-slavery Missouri Bushwhackers fought to bring the freedmen back into slavery. With Lawrence as the “free state” capitol, local traffic added to the depth of Oregon California Road ruts. Kansas in fact became a free State in 1861 as the Civil War broke out.

On the night of August 21, 1863, Confederate Captain William Clarke Quantrill led 400 raiders from successes at Independence, Missouri against Union troops, toward Lawrence to punish the anti-slavery zealots of many years standing. The inhabitants of Blue Jacket’s Crossing got wind of Quantrill’s sweep across northeastern Kansas and took precautions. Eliza Silverheels, wife of David Likens Blue Jacket, had a one year old boy at the time but took it upon herself to round up the children and some older protectors, loaded them with provisions and the very youngest and sent them into the hills south of the Wakarusa.

Defending Hearth and Home

Eliza was determined to guard her home, stayed there and lay in wait for the band of guerillas prancing toward Lawrence. This great-great grandmother of Robert Harry Withrow, Jr., was armed with a Pipe Tomahawk, most assuredly obtained from her father-in-law, the Rev. Charles Blue Jacket, by now an ordained Methodist Minister.

As the raiders crossed the Wakarusa at this Shawnee enclave, one, bent on looting Eliza’s home and perhaps intent on doing bodily harm to any inhabitants, tried to enter by a window. A young, enraged Shawnee Indian woman brandishing a wicked looking Tomahawk confronted him! With great effort, Eliza gave a mighty swing of her weapon, so mighty in fact, that when the axe met the raider, her arm broke. The haft of the Tomahawk broke at the same time. The Quantrillian was not so fortunate, as the blow to his head did him in for good!

The Confederates hit Lawrence at 5 AM, killing upwards of 200 men, looting, raping and setting fire to the entire town in an atrocity of the worst kind. Quantrill later was abandoned by most of his men and killed by Union troops in Kentucky. Lawrence began recovery immediately, regardless of the heartbreak foisted upon them by those monsters.

Pipe Tomahawks

The successful defender passed the family Pipe Tomahawk on to daughter Cindarella Blue Jacket who passed it to her daughter Cindarella Florence (Mills) Brown. Mrs. Brown’s daughter, Betty June, married Robert Harry Withrow and they parented Robert, Jr., who is the current keeper of the family heirloom. The Withrow family and 90 year old grand mom, Cindarella Florence, all attended the picnic and all contributed to this story.

European and Americans developed pipe Tomahawks for the Indian trade. Made with a smoking handle and a tobacco bowl insert at the head, they served, among other things, as “badges of prestige” given to Indian leaders at treaty signings and other occasions. Giver and receiver ornately decorated most. Modern artisans reproduce them and can be acquired at less than $50.00 to $500.00. Documented historical antiquities sell for upwards of $35,000!

Robert Withrow pipe tomahawk

Robert Withrow’s Pipe Tomahawk does not have the original smoking haft, thanks to Eliza’s mighty blow, however, its origin is documented by makers marks.

The maker was a Vickers metal smith in London, England in 1833. The head was cast in the Naylor, Vickers and Company’s Sheffield foundry.

Pipe tomahawk

Both sides of the head have the “Bleeding Heart” symbol, which is a common decoration on the antique ones.

Pipe tomahawk bleeding heart

The Masonic emblem was probably etched by gun and black smithy, John Blue Jacket, brother of the Rev. Charles Blue Jacket, who, along with many other Shawnees, was active in that organization.

Pipe tomahawk man in moom

The other side is scribed with a man in the moon, which is a bit unusual. The French Moon or crescent moon was, however, a common inscription, sometimes included when the head was cast.

Robert Withrow, Jr. is a teacher of survival skills across the country, both to private and military groups. It is fitting that he continues to preserve Shawnee history and heritages.

Withrow family

Top L-R: Robert Withrow, Robert Withrow, Jr ., Robert John Brown Bottom, L-R: Betty Withrow, Cindarella Brown, Saundra Davis.

The elder Withrows live in Chetopa KS, Robert and Saundra in Centralia IL and Cindarella in Centralia.

Cindarella had the good fortune to remember her grandparents. She was born in 1911 and David Likens Blue Jacket passed away on April 4, 1919 and Eliza (Silverheels) Blue Jacket on June 12, 1929. Great historical events were told directly to their daughter Cindarella (Blue Jacket) Mills and to their grand daughter Cindarella Mills. Now, at 90 years of age, the latter is still able to give us insight to our Shawnee heritage. Thank you Cindarella Florence (Mills) Brown.

Gaylord Carlyle Hinshaw
1713 Baron Dr.
Norman OK 73071

405-364-4584

bjexploration@swbell.net

Posted in DNA, Shawnee | Leave a comment

Creek Indian Mound Near Fort Decatur, Alabama

Creek Decatur Mound

While watching this video of Fort Decatur, Alabama, I noticed the Indian Mound.  The history of the Fort is that is was built in 1812 where an Indian village was, or was nearby.  The gentleman who filmed this site says the local legend is that James or Peter McQueen is buried here.  Of course, local legends may or may not be accurate, but the mound is in the middle of the Creek lands.

The mound portion of this video is at the end, after the Fort Decatur video which is very close to this mound.

James McQueen was a Scots-Irish fur trader, the first to trade in 1714 with the Creek in Alabama.  He became closely involved with the Creek and married into the tribe.  It’s also reputed that he is buried in the Indian Cemetery in Franklin, Alabama near a Methodist Missionary Church for the Creek.  Franklin is very close to this location.

James McQueen was the great-grandfather of Osceola, legendary Seminole leader.

Posted in Creek | 2 Comments