Mary Jemison, White Indian of the Genesee

Jemison 1

As I’ve been extracting the surnames of the New York Indian tribes from the Indian census (1888-1893), which consist of the Six Nations, Jemison, Jimerson, Jemerson and variant spellings are found in all of the tribes.  It’s a very unusual name otherwise, but very common within the tribes.

It also has a very unusual genesis – not Native at all.  Mary Jemison, the progenitor of the Jemison lines, was a captive white woman.

Mary Jemison (Deh-he-wä-mis), was born in 1743 and died September 19, 1833.  She was born to white immigrant parents and died an adopted Seneca. When she was in her teens, she was captured in what is now Adams County, Pennsylvania, from her home along Marsh Creek, and later chose to remain a Seneca.

Mary Jemison was born to Thomas and Jane Jemison aboard the ship William and Mary in the fall of 1743 while en route from what is now Northern Ireland to America. Upon their arrival in America, the couple and their new child joined other Scots-Irish immigrants and headed west from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to what was then the western frontier (now central Pennsylvania). They “squatted” on territory that was under the authority of the Iroquois Confederacy.

During the time the Jemisons were establishing their home, the French and Indian War (Seven Years War) was raging. One morning in 1755, a raiding party consisting of six Shawnee Indians and four Frenchmen captured Mary, her family (except two older brothers) and Davy Wheelock, a boy from another family. En route to Fort Duquesne (present-day Pittsburgh), Mary’s mother, father, and siblings were killed and scalped. Mary and the other young boy were spared. Once the party reached the Fort, Mary was given to two Seneca Indians, who took Mary downriver. The Seneca adopted Mary, renaming her Deh-he-wä-mis which she learned meant, “… a pretty girl, a handsome girl, or a pleasant, good thing.”

She married a Delaware named Sheninjee. They had a son whom she named Thomas after her father. Sheninjee took her on a 700-mile (1,100 km) journey to the Sehgahunda Valley along the Genesee River in present-day New York state. Although Jemison and their son reached this destination, her husband did not. Leaving his wife to hunt, he had taken ill and died.  She arrived alone, with her baby, in the dead of winter.  She was received with open arms by her husband’s clan and settled to a happy life among the Seneca in Sehgehunda, or “Vale of the Three Falls”.  She married Seneca chief Hiokatoo, and she had six more children.

During the American Revolutionary War, the Seneca were allies of the British. Jemison’s account of her life includes some observations during this time, as she and others in the Seneca town helped Joseph Brant and Iroquois warriors who fought against the colonists.

After the war, the Seneca sold much of their land at Little Beard’s Town to European-American settlers in 1797. At that time, during negotiations with the Holland Land Company held at Geneseo, New York, Mary Jemison proved to be an able negotiator for the Seneca tribe. She helped win more favorable terms for giving up their rights to the land at the Treaty of Big Tree (1797).

In 1823, the tribe sold most of the remainder of the land, except for a 2-acre (8,100 m2) tract of land reserved for Jemison’s use. Known locally as the “White Woman of the Genesee”, she lived on the tract until she sold it in 1831 and moved to the Buffalo Creek Reservation. Jemison lived the rest of her life with the Seneca Nation. She died on September 19, 1833, aged 90. She was initially buried on the Buffalo Creek Reservation.

Jemison 2

When the reservation was closed and the burial ground there threatened, her grandchildren turned to William Pryor Letchworth, whose estate, Glen Iris, encompassed the land where Sehgehunda had been. He immediately invited them to bring Mary home. Her remains were placed in a new walnut coffin and taken back to the Genesee Valley. A full ceremony was held at the old Seneca council house, and she was laid to rest in March of 1874. Letchworth erected a granite marker, on top of which is a statue which he dedicated in 1910, after his estate had been incorporated into Letchworth State Park in present day Castille, New York.

Jemison 3

A bronze statue of Mary Jemison, created in 1910 by Henry Kirke Bush-Brown, marks her grave. Dr. George F. Kunz helped with the 1910 memorial to Jemison, “The White Indian of the Genesee”, who is buried at “the ancient Indian Council House of the Senecas.” Dr. Kunz always was fascinated by Native Americans, and contributed much to their memorials in New York.

Today, the various Jemison families of New York carry her legacy.

Jemison 4

Late in life, she told her story to the minister James E. Seaver, who published it as a classic “captivity narrative”, Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jemison (1824; latest ed. 1967). Many history scholars consider it to be a reasonably accurate narrative.

jemison 5

You can read Mary’s life story in the “Narrative of the Life of Mary Jemison.”  The drawings in this article are from this book, published in 1856.

About Roberta Estes

Scientist, author, genetic genealogist. Documenting Native Heritage through contemporaneous records and DNA.
This entry was posted in Delaware, Iroquois, Seneca. Bookmark the permalink.

20 Responses to Mary Jemison, White Indian of the Genesee

  1. my name is Caroline Dodge Clark.And mary Jemison is my 5th Great Aunt .Thank You caroline

  2. bonniebuck says:

    do you happen to know if mary jemison’s mtdna is available online somewhere or at the very least her maternal haplogroup?

    • No I don’t. But with so many descendants, you’d think it could be if the genealogy was tracked correctly.

      • roberta, I dont know her mtdna but you can check my dna on family finda and my 7grgrandfather william jameson 1697 ulster Ireland -1753 augusta Va. My dna #n6112 I hope you understand the results better then me I have quite the connections to native indians.If you would like to talk to me 303-979-2093 or give me your phone number and i can call you caroline

      • Hi Caroline, Mary’s mitochondrial DNA would need to be found by testing someone who descended from her through all females. Women pass their mitochondrial DNA to both sexes of their children, but only the females pass it on. So in your case, you don’t descend from her through your mother’s maternal line, unbroken by men, so you don’t carry her mitochondrial DNA.

  3. Lisa sands says:

    Mary Jemison is my 6th great grandmother

    • maria says:

      mine as well!!!! My family is Seneca and we are making our family tree and she come into the picture! 🙂

      • Diane Dennen says:

        According to my grandmother who passed away in 1984 I too am a desendant of Mary but I can’t trace how. Would love to see your tree to see if I recognize any names. I have a tree on if you wanted to see mine. Thank you.

      • Curtis says:

        mary jameson. Son william w hatcher is her son. Go two edward hatcher on indian rows indian card2662

    • Joseph W Wellcome says:

      Mary Jamison is my fifth great grandmother through her daughter Betsey and John Greenblanket. Greenblanket was shorten to Green. Some DNA testing does not show Native American heritage. However, GEDMATCH shows that I have bits of Native American heritage including Clovis ancestry, Eskimo, etc…… The Native American populations were not homogenous. So it really depends on the parameters of the tests. My father was told that he was Part Native American and I painstakingly looked at records that included a census record that had my 3 times grandmother living on a Reservation near Syracuse. Before DNA, I traced it through the Green family.

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  8. Edith Jimerson says:

    Hi, my name is Edith JIMERSON. Daughter of Asa JIMERSON. My grandfather is Benjamin JIMERSON. I will repost name of great grandfather.

  9. Susan says:

    Mary Jemison died in 1833 not 1933.

  10. Kim Jamieson says:

    My family has long told of an ancestor who contributed to our occasional child born with red/auburn hair and grey/green eyes…and from whom we got our last name, Jamieson. I always thought it was a charming story, until I found it in a book one day. My husband did some research through, and it turns out Mary Jemison is my 7th great grandmother, and my family are descended from her first born son, Thomas.

  11. Melinda Dukes says:

    My family have been working on our family history and we have traced back to Mary Jemison. I know she was considered a member of the Seneca tribe but I didn’t know if anyone knows which of the Bird or Animal subdivision she actually belonged to. I’d like to be able to fill this in on our tree. Any help would be amazing! Thank you so much for your time.

  12. Sally J. Tarasoff says:

    Mary Jemison is my 6th great grandmother on my mother’s side. We were always told about her story and through Ancestry I was able to actually confirm it. My family is descended through her son Thomas Teahdowaingua Jimerson.

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