George Washington Letter to the Tuscarora

The French and Indian War took place from 1754 to 1763.  During this time, a significant amount of land was disputed, and fighting took place primarily in these regions and in borderlands.  The Native American tribes were key players, often because they already lived in these regions, understood the lay of the land, and had been recruited through promises of their lands being returned if the French won.

French Indian War map

We often don’t think of George Washington as a player in the French and Indian War, more often in conjunction with the Revolutionary War, but he was clearly involved.  In the letter below, he wrote to the Tuscarora Indians of North Carolina asking for their support.  An underscored word means I couldn’t read it clearly, or at all in some cases.

Tusc letter

George Washington Papers, 1741-1799

To King Blount, Capt Jack and the rest of the Tuscarora Chiefs.

Brothers and Friends.  This will be delivered you by our brother Tom, a warrior of the Nottoways who with others of that nation have distinguished themselves in our service this summer against our great and perfidious enemies.

The intent of this is to assure you of our real friendship and love and to confirm and strengthen that chain of friendship which has subsisted between us for so many years past….a chain like ours founded on sincere love and friendship must be strong and lasting and will I hope endure while the sun and stars give light.

Brothers you can be no strangers to the many murders and cruelties committed on our countrymen and friends by that false and faithless people the French who are constantly endeavoring to corrupt the minds of our friendly Indians and Lord have stirred up the Shawnee and Delaware with several other nations to take up the hatchet against us and at the head of many of their Indians have invaded our country, laid waste our lands, plundered our plantations, murdered defenseless women and children, burnt and destroyed wherever they came….which has enraged friends the Six Nations, Cherokees, Nottoways, Cattawbas, and all our Indian allies and prompted them to take up the hatchet in our defense against these disturbances of the common peace.

I hope Brothers you will likewise take up the hatchet against the French and their Indians as our other friends have done and send us some of your young men to protect our frontiers and go to war with us against our notiss and ambitious Frenchmen and to encourage your warriors, I promise to furnish them with arms, ammunition, clothes, provision and ever necessary for war…and the sooner you send them to our assistance the greater ___ will give us of your friendship and the better shall we be enabled to take just revenge on the cruelties.

May you live a happy prosperous people and may we act with sincere love and friendship and while rivers run and trees grow is the sincere wish of your friend and Brother.

Signed with George Washington’s signature

In confirmation of the above and in hopes of your compliance with my request…I give you this string of wampum.

Posted in Catawba, Cherokee, Nottoway, Six Nations, Tuscarora | 2 Comments

Bonita Bent-Nelson, Quillwoman

quillwoman 3.1

Recent, I attended a powwow and met a remarkable artist, Bonita Bent-Nelson, also known as Quillwoman.  How she earned the name Quillwoman is obvious once you see her quillwork. But before we look at Bonita’s work, let’s learn a little about Quillwork.

Quillwork is a form of textile embellishment traditionally practiced by Native Americans that employs the quills of porcupines as a decorative element.quillwork knife sheath

Porcupine quillwork is an art form completely unique to North America. Before the introduction of glass beads, quillwork was a major decorative element used by the peoples who resided in the porcupine’s natural habitat. The use of quills in designs spans from Maine to Alaska and south to the Mexican border.  Where you find porcupines, you find some form of quillwork. The earliest known quillwork was found in Alberta, Canada and dates back to the 6th century CE.

Cheyenne oral history, as told by Picking Bones Woman to George Bird Grinnell, says quilling came to their tribe from a man who married a woman, who hid her true identity as a buffalo. His son was also a buffalo. The man visited his wife and son in their buffalo home, and, while among the buffalo, the man learned the art of quilling, which he shared with the women of his tribe.

Joining the Cheyenne Quilling Society was a prestigious honor for Cheyenne women. Upon entering the Society, women would work first on quilling moccasins, then cradleboards, rosettes for men’s shirts and tipis, and ultimately, hide robes and backrests.

Porcupine quills often adorned rawhide and tanned hides, but during the 19th century, quilled birch bark boxes were a popular trade item to sell to European-Americans among Eastern and Great Lakes tribes.  The Odawa were famous for their beautiful quillwork embroidery.

Quills suitable for embellishment are two to three inches long and may be dyed before use. In their natural state, the quills are pale yellow to white with black tips. The tips are usually snipped off before use. Quill readily take dye, which originally was derived from local plants and included colors such as black, yellow, red, and blue. By the 19th century, aniline dyes were available through trade and greatly expanded the quilling palette.

The four most common techniques for traditional quillwork are appliqué, embroidery, wrapping, and loom weaving. Appliquéd quills are stitched into hide in a manner that covers the stitches. In wrapping, a single quill may be wrapped upon itself or two quills may be intertwined.  Above, a traditional quillwork knife sheath.

Today, most quillwork is decorative and done on a birchbark base.  This small birchbark, sweetgrass and quillwork eagle box from my own collection illustrates the type of quillwork most often seen today.

quill eagle box quill eagle box 1

In many places, quillwork is a dying art because it’s difficult and porcupine quills are not readily available.

When I saw Bonita’s work, I was stunned, not only at the beauty, but also at the amount of work and preparation that goes into the product, even before the quills are ready for embroidering.  Most quillwork is done with the quill in intact, meaning still rounded, but Bonita cuts each quill apart and uses the quill itself as thread.

You can see the difference between the older knife sheath, my eagle box and Bonita’s work, below.

quillwoman 5

Most of Bonita’s work is done on leather, not birchbark.

I asked Bonita how she began, and she told me that she found a dead porcupine and plucked it’s quills.  As with many skills, she learned the basics from elders, but then, she was on her own.  As you can see, she has developed her own artistic voice.

quillwoman 7

Bonita was told that her first year, which is in essence a form of apprenticeship, was her give-away year.  Everything she made that year was to be given away.  The concept of “give-away” in the Native community is linked to the spiritual aspect of grace and gratitude.  It has more to do with the giver than the receiver.

Bonita says, “I learned quillwork almost 20 yrs. ago from the late Cherokee elder Ganda-gija-I. Creator gave me the gift of quills and my work reflects that gift. I demonstrate and give workshops and lectures at powwows, historical reenactments, universities, museums and cultural centers throughout the Great Lakes.

I learned quillwork from the ground up…literally…picking up fresh roadkill, plucking, cleaning and dying my own quills, sometimes using natural dyes, sometimes using RIT dye. I only quill on braintan leather and though I know how to tan my own hides, I leave that task to my friend Dan Vogt of IL because the physical labor it entails is too hard on my hands. While I can sew in historic fashion using only the old methods, I prefer to use a more modern, single-needle technique which makes it quicker and ultimately more affordable but the result is identical to the old way. I have been called on to do restoration of historic items but most of my own work is concentrated on animals, giving life & spirit to each piece with a realism few others do.”

quillwoman 1

In addition to powwows and reenactments, Bonita has worked with the Eiteljorg Museum of American Indian and Western Art in Indianapolis, IN and the Museum of the American Indian in Evanston, IL.  Her work has appeared in Native People’s Magazine and as cover art for Studies in American Indian Literature.

Bonita is not an enrolled tribal member, but has both Cherokee and Southern Cheyenne ancestors.  I addition, she is an adopted Odawa.

I was absolutely fascinated by her work and the realism that she is able to achieve.

quillwoman 6

I had been at Bonita’s table, under a tree for several minutes, utterly engrossed in her work, when I became acutely aware of movement directly beside my head.  I turned my head and to my amazement saw….

quillwoman abby 3

Meet Abby Bent.  Abby nearly gave me a heart attack.  She was quite interested in what I was doing and was looking over my shoulder at her “mother,” Bonita.  Abby goes to powwows and reenactments with Bonita.  Why, Abby Bent even has her own facebook page, friend and followers.

But that’s not all, Abby had a sidekick, an African Grey named Shaka Zulu, adopted last year when his owner died.  Unfortunately, one of Abby’s favorite things to do it to unhook Shaka’s perch chain from the tree and watch poor Shaka drop to the ground.  Who thinks birds don’t have personality has never met these birds!

quillwoman abby

As you can see, Bonita’s table where she works and displays her wares is right here, beside Abby and Shaka, and she keep an eye on both, much like a couple of feathered toddlers.

quillwoman abby 2

One thing is for sure, you won’t forget meeting Bonita and her traveling menagerie anytime soon.

It you want to find Bonita, she is on Facebook under “Bonita Bent Nelson” where you can see more of her astounding work, powwows, reenactments, and of course, Abby and Shaka.

quillwoman 8

Posted in Art, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Odawa | 3 Comments

Buffalo Bird Woman’s Garden

Buffalo Bird Woman, 1910

Buffalo Bird Woman’s Garden

As Recounted by

Maxi’diwiac (Buffalo Bird Woman) (ca.1839-1932) of the Hidatsa Indian Tribe

Originally published as

Agriculture of the Hidatsa Indians: An Indian Interpretation

by Gilbert Livingstone Wilson, Ph.D. (1868-1930)

In the words of Buffalo Bird Woman, herself, shown above in 1910:

“We Hidatsas believe that our tribe once lived under the waters of Devils Lake. Some hunters discovered the root of a vine growing downward; and climbing it, they found themselves on the surface of the earth. Others followed them, until half the tribe had escaped; but the vine broke under the weight of a pregnant woman, leaving the rest prisoners. A part of our tribe are therefore still beneath the lake.

My father, Small Ankle, going, when a young man, on a war party, visited Devils Lake. “Beneath the waves,” he said, “I heard a faint drumming, as of drums in a big dance.” This story is true; for Sioux, who now live at Devils Lake, have also heard this drumming.

Those of my people who escaped from the lake built villages near by. These were of earth lodges, such as my tribe built until very recent years; two such earth lodges are still standing on this reservation.

The site where an earth lodge has stood is marked by an earthen ring, rising about what was once the hard trampled floor. There are many such earthen rings on the shores of Devils Lake, showing that, as tradition says, our villages stood there. There were three of these villages, my father said, who several times visited the sites.

Near their villages, the people made gardens; and in these they planted ground beans and wild potatoes, from seed brought with them from their home under the water. These vegetables we do not cultivate now; but we do gather them in the fall, in the woods along the Missouri where they grow wild. They are good eating.

These gardens by Devils Lake I think must have been rather small. I know that in later times, whenever my tribe removed up the Missouri to build a new village, our fields the first year, were quite small; for clearing the wooded bottom land was hard work. A family usually added to their clearing each year, until their garden was as large as they cared to cultivate.

As yet, my people knew nothing of corn or squashes. One day a war party, I think of ten men, wandered west to the Missouri River. They saw on the other side a village of earth lodges like their own. It was a village of the Mandans. The villagers saw the Hidatsas, but like them, feared to cross over, lest the strangers prove to be enemies.

It was autumn, and the Missouri River was running low so that an arrow could be shot from shore to shore. The Mandans parched some ears of ripe corn with the grain on the cob; they broke the ears in pieces, thrust the pieces on the points of arrows, and shot them across the river. “Eat!” they said, whether by voice or signs, I do not know. The word for “eat” is the same in the Hidatsa and Mandan languages.

The warriors ate of the parched corn, and liked it. They returned to their village and said, “We have found a people living by the Missouri River who have a strange kind of grain, which we ate and found good!” The tribe was not much interested and made no effort to seek the Mandans, fearing, besides, that they might not be friendly.

However, a few years after, a war party of the Hidatsas crossed the Missouri and visited the Mandans at their village near Bird Beak Hill. The Mandan chief took an ear of yellow corn, broke it in two, and gave half to the Hidatsas. This half-ear the Hidatsas took home, for seed; and soon every family was planting yellow corn.

I think that seed of other varieties of corn, and of beans, squashes, and sunflowers, were gotten of the Mandans  afterwards; but there is no story telling of this, that I know.

I do not know when my people stopped planting ground beans and wild potatoes; but ground beans are hard to dig, and the people, anyway, liked the new kind of beans better.

Whether the ground beans and wild potatoes of the Missouri bottoms are descended from the seed planted by the villagers at Devils Lake, I do not know.

My tribe, as our old men tell us, after they got corn, abandoned their villages at Devils Lake, and joined the Mandans near the mouth of the Heart River. The Mandans helped them build new villages here, near their own. I think this was hundreds of years ago.

Firewood growing scarce, the two tribes removed up the Missouri to the mouth of the Knife River, where they built the Five Villages, as they called them. Smallpox was brought to my people here, by traders. In a single year, more than half my tribe died, and of the Mandans, even more.

Those who survived removed up the Missouri and built a village at Like-a-fishhook bend, where they lived together, Hidatsas and Mandans, as one tribe. This village we Hidatsas called Mu’a-idu’skupe-hi’cec, or Like-a-fishhook village, after the bend on which it stood; but white men called it Fort Berthold, from a trading post that was there.

We lived in Like-a-fishhook village about forty years, or until 1885, when the government began to place families on allotments.

The agriculture of the Hidatsas, as I now describe it, I saw practiced in the gardens of Like-a-fishhook village, in my girlhood, before my tribe owned plows.”

The rest of the document is available at this link:

Hat tip to Terri and Elaine for sending this my way.

Posted in Agriculture, Hidatsa, Mandan, Sioux | 1 Comment

The Autosomal Me Series Finishes with Identification of Native Family Lines

John Y Estes

Finally, it’s done!!!  What’s done, you ask?  The final chapter in the DNA series, “The Autosomal Me.”  The goal of this series was to use my DNA results to see if I could identify which family lines carried Native heritage.  Lines, plural?  Yes indeed, I have identified more than one line in my family that carries Native heritage – and multiple lines on both sides of the family.  That was a bit of an AHA moment.

I’ve known for years that my mother has Micmac heritage via her Acadian family lines.  What I didn’t know is that she likely has a second line too….and that my father’s genealogy just might contain a common ancestor with my mother.  Yes, this was a revealing process – full of surprises.

The process I’ve established in The Autosomal Me series will walk you through your minority admixture as well, with the goal of finding those elusive Native or minority admixture ancestors.  Warning – it’s long and intensive and not for the uncommitted.  I would classify it as for the genetic genealogical warrior, so to speak.

It’s really quite interesting, because although I did not receive “the answer” in a nice neat package with a bow, the process did eliminate many lines from consideration, and on my father’s side, there are three candidate lines, one involving the known Native Hatcher family.  Now, it’s time to focus on the genealogy research to see if I can turn up additional documentation or evidence for these family lines.  Maybe there was no “nice neat answer” to receive, and what I’ve received is the truth, delivered in the work clothes of opportunity:)

The photo is of my oldest ancestor whose photo I have in my Native line, John Y. Estes (1818-1895).  He carries DNA from several of the lines identified in the DNA discovery process.  Maybe we’ve uncovered an explanation for why his skin color was identified as “dark” on his Civil War paperwork and the persistent family stories of Native ancestors.  Please note that this is the only known photo of him and it was in very bad shape when found in the bottom of a box that mice had chewed.  This photo has been professionally restored.

Posted in DNA, Education, Micmac | 7 Comments

Native Warriors and Battles

At the Military and Historical Image Bank, I discovered several renderings of Native people, mostly in military context.

The first group shows 6 images, including the Battle of Oriskany, about which I had just been reading.  The Battle of Oriskany was one of the bloodiest battles of the Revolutionary War wherein the Six Nations Indians fought with the Loyalists against the Patriots and the Oneida Indians near Fort Stanwick, New York.  This division of loyalty caused a significant rift within the Indian nation.

This second group is the French and Indian War and includes another Native warrior not includes on the Native page.

I hope you enjoy the photos.  We can’t visit our ancestors today, but being able to view how they dressed and look at paintings and renditions of historically accurate Indians, combined with history, help us to connect with them in their life and times.  Enjoy.

Hat tip to Paul for this resource.

Posted in Military, Oneida, Six Nations | 4 Comments

Nooherooka Website at ECU

Tuscarora smoking pipeEastern Carolina University hosted the 300th Anniversary Commemoration of the Battle of Fort Nooherooka in the spring of 2013.  In preparation for this even, ECU constructed a website, which I hope they will continue to maintain, adding documents, papers, photos and other information relevant to Tuscarora history.  In fact, this would be the perfect forum for ongoing study, papers, conferences and community events for the northern and southern Tuscarora people.

Let’s take a look at the primary pages they have assembled.

As with any website, the intro pages and acknowledgements te;; about the goals of the site and who is involved.  That list is pretty impressive.

Perhaps of more interest to our readers are the historical pages, as follows:

Artifacts excavated from the Nooherooka site by the ECU Anthropology Department between 1990 and 2001, including the smoking pipe with the eel or snake design, shown above:

Tuscarora War Documents including the Barnwell Journal:

Discussion board which holds historical articles and not really discussion:

Other items of interest include the Construction of the Nooherooka Monument as well as some videos from a visit by the New York Tuscarora in 2012 in preparation for the 300th Anniversary Commemoration Event in the spring of 2013.


I would love to see them add some photos of the Commemoration event itself.  We’ve includes two articles, one about the Commemoration and the second, a historical family story interwoven with the historical events.

Another ECU site provides this video of the events:

Additional ECU photos:

This Facebook site includes photos taken by the attendees:

Posted in Military, Tuscarora | 1 Comment

Orange Co., NC Free Families of Color 1790-1840

In the article, The Jeffreys and Day Families, Cabinetmakers, we discovered that Thomas Day of Caswell County, NC was connected with the Day and Jeffreys families who lived in Orange County, NC, a group of people who were of mixed Native heritage, apparently Occaneechi, who had moved in the early 1800s from Greensville Co., VA.  Thomas himself was born to John and Mourning (Stewart) Day, a mixed race couple.  The Day family was also closely associated with the Jeffreys family whose Indian heritage is documented through court records.  These families would have been listed on the census as free people of color, not as white.

In the census returns, there are many families that include both slaves and free people of color.  The families listed below are the entries that only have free people of color, implying of course that the name listed is the head of household and that person is a free person of color.

Based on the information about the Jeffreys family and from Forest Hazel, among these families are those of Native ancestry.  This is not to imply that ALL of these families “of color” have Native ancestry.  To connect these families, one would have to perform research on marriages, deeds and land records, wills and probate records.

1790 Tax List

There is no 1790 census for Orange Co., NC, unfortunately, but there is an enumeration with a tax list replacing the census.  On that tax list, there is no Guy family but there are 4 Jeffers; Jacob, Evan, Garner and John.

The 1800 Census

The 1800 census classification for people of color was “all others.”  The Hillsborough District of Orange County shows the following in that category.  This census has been alphabetized on the actual returns by district.  It looks like all of Orange County was enumerated under the Hillsborough District.

  • Mary Woods
  • John Arthur
  • Mason Griffies
  • Black Jacob (sic – alphabetized on the tax list under Jacob)
  • Jacob Jeffries
  • Peter Jones
  • Rapes (difficult to read) Stewart
  • Sandy Burnetts
  • Edward Bowman
  • Joseph Bird
  • Thomas Bunch
  • Henry Bunch
  • Benjamin Farrington
  • John Gowing
  • Holladay Heathcock
  • Edward Husk
  • Paul Morgan
  • Paul Morgan
  • (John Moore) Morgan (sic)
  • Thomas Morgan
  • James Tinning
  • Zadock Weaver
  • Penny Weaver
  • Peggy Revels

The 1810 Census

The 1810 census for Orange County shows the Jeffreys family in the Hillsborough District of Orange County.  The 1810 classification for free people of color was “all others.”  People in the Hillsborough District under this classification were as follows:

  • Eliasabeth Williams
  • John Willson
  • Samuel Noe
  • Vines Guy
  • Rob Brook corn (sic) 6 houses from
  • Miles Scott beside
  • William Mize two houses from
  • Thomas Jeffries
  • Kinchin Chavis
  • Aaron Burnet beside
  • Nath Bell 6 houses from
  • Mathew Melton 1 house from
  • Major Brooks
  • L. Jeffreys
  • e Vrush (name difficult to read, page 51 of 123 at Ancestry, Orange County census records, below)

1810 orange co vrush

  • William Bettyford
  • Paul Morgan
  • M. Hurtgray 13 houses from
  • H. Jones
  • M. Haithcock 2 houses from
  • Isam Goins
  • G. Tatom
  • William Staggs
  • George Hormen or Horner
  • Hezekiah Revill
  • John Horsow?
  • Henry Bunch
  • S. Burnett

1820 Census

The 1820 census for Orange County included the following families who were counted as “free negroes.”

  • Mark Hammons 1 house from
  • Simon White
  • Reuben Day
  • Jacob Johnston
  • George Tatum
  • Henry Bunch
  • Henry Corne
  • Benjamin Day beside
  • Jesse Day 23 houses from
  • Jimmy(?) Corn beside
  • Samuel Craig
  • Thomas Morgan (possibly, difficult to line up with the enumeration)
  • Marmaduke Cole
  • Coy Revell 6 houses from
  • Moses Ratley
  • Cylus Shoecraft 4 houses from
  • James Shoecraft 1 house from
  • Miles Milton 20 houses from Randal Milton (who was enumerated as white but it was struck through) 4 houses from
  • Josiah Robbins (who was enumerated as white but it was struck through) 8 houses from
  • Jesse Fludd beside
  • Judah Griffis
  • Meradeth Chavous 15 houses from
  • Willis Jeffreys one house from
  • John Jeffreys 2 houses from
  • John Jeffreys 8 houses from
  • Drury Jeffreys 7 houses from
  • Littleton Jeffreys 14 houses from
  • Jesse Guy 16 houses from
  • Joshua Jeffreys beside
  • Jinney Jeffreys
  • Cresa Hudson
  • William Guy 2 houses from
  • John Evans 6 houses from
  • Jed Weavans beside
  • Major Brooks beside
  • Thomas Archer beside
  • John Boyd 2 houses from
  • Jonathan Waldin
  • James Bass 10 houses from
  • Susan Robison
  • Samuel Noe
  • Benj Day beside
  • Reuben Jeffreys 12 houses from
  • Aaron Burnett 5 houses from
  • John Artis beside
  • Aaron Wilson
  • James Bird
  • Willice Boon
  • Nathaniel Bayley
  • Major Weavans (Wevans?) 25 houses from
  • Rubin Day
  • Betsey Morgan
  • Joel Mitchell
  • Elias Jeffreys 15 houses from
  • Thomas Jeffreys
  • Fanny Evans
  • Kinchen Chavous 1 house from
  • Simon Jeffreys 3 houses from
  • William Moize beside
  • Hannah Jones 9 houses from
  • Willey Jones 4 houses from
  • Junel (Surrel?) Jones 6 houses from
  • Lewis Jeffreys 2 houses from
  • Chd Whitmore 1 house from
  • John Guy 11 houses from
  • Dixon Corne
  • William Croker?
  • Jesse Archer (started to enumerate as white but struck through)

1830 Census

The 1830 census of the North District or Orange County, NC shows an entire group of families, free people of color, enumerated together, possibly living adjacent.  It’s also possible that the enumerator simply listed all of the “free colored” together at the end of the census.  Please note that the writing is difficult to decipher in some cases.

Orange Co NC 1830 census

Orange Co NC 1830 census 2

  • Joshua Jeffreys
  • Miller Jeffreys
  • Wharton Jeffrys
  • Newel Jeffrys
  • Littleton Jeffrys
  • Abner Burnet
  • Dixon Corn
  • Mark Hammonds
  • Sam Truman
  • William Truman
  • Lucretia Rollen
  • John Artus
  • Anor (or Amos) Fords
  • Nathan Allen
  • Rhoda Rotteth(?) or Rottesh
  • Joel Mitchel
  • Lucy Peters
  • Hetty Tinnin
  • Jerry Day
  • Betsey Morgan
  • Rachel Morgan
  • Jolly Revils
  • Reuben Day

If anyone can help with these family names that are difficult to decipher, I would be very appreciative.

The 1840 Census

The 1840 census for the Northern District of Orange County is not enumerated with these families together, but they are listed as follows.

  • Jane Corn enumerated beside
  • Elias Jeffreys
  • Thomas Pettiford
  • Dickson Corn
  • Hawky Wadkins one house from
  • Drury Jeffreys 6 houses from
  • Dickson Corn beside
  • Joshua Jeffreys 15 houses from
  • Richardson Corn beside
  • John Jeffreys beside
  • Willis Jeffreys 16 houses from
  • Andrew Jeffreys one house from
  • Littleton Jeffreys
  • Nat. Rebel
  • Allen Day 14 houses from
  • William Day 3 houses from
  • Neverson Stewart 13 houses from
  • Reuben Day 20 houses from
  • Thomas Jeffreys
  • Elijah Jones beside
  • Sally Heath beside
  • Betsey Guy beside
  • Abner Burnet 13 houses from
  • James Smith
  • Lucretia Rolins
  • Meredith Chaves
  • Enoch Jones
  • Ransom Jeffreys 11 houses from
  • Renico (or Lenica?) Day
  • Rachel Robeson beside
  • Cullen Bass 5 houses from
  • Wilie Chaves 3 houses from
  • Anderson Taburn beside
  • Edmund Taburn beside
  • George Day 13 houses from
  • William Bookman 2 houses from
  • Wilie Johnston beside
  • David Mitchel 16 houses from
  • Chesley Bass
  • Thomas Chaves 4 houses from
  • Benjamin Day
  • Jesse Whitmore

In 1849, this portion of Orange County became Alamance County, Va.

Posted in Census, North Carolina, Ocaneechi | 1 Comment