Georgia Land Lotteries – Gold Grabbing

Georgia Cherokee lands 1830

Georgia Cherokee lands in 1830

The Georgia Land Lotteries which spanned from 1805 to 1833 were one of the largest land grabs in eastern US, certainly the largest having to do with the 5 Civilized Tribes.

In Georgia, this land belonged to the Creek and Cherokee Nations, and the Europeans wanted it.  It included gold mines.

The Cherokees did not give up their land without a fight.  In fact, they took it to the US Supreme Court, a case they won their cases, but both the state of Georgia and US President Andrew Jackson chose to ignore the court’s finding and instead forced the removal of the Cherokee, taking their lands to be divided among non-Cherokee citizens.

In an effort to keep their lands, certain Cherokees (and other interested parties)—including John Ross, Samuel Worcester and Major Ridge—took their fight against the State of Georgia to the United States Supreme Court. There were two major cases heard by the Court during the years of 1831 through 1832: Cherokee Nation v. Georgia and Worcester v. Georgia. Though the Cherokee Nation actually won the court battles, both U.S. President Andrew Jackson and the State of Georgia chose instead to ignore the Supreme Court ruling.   In a popular quotation, President Andrew Jackson is supposed to have said: “[Chief Justice] John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it!”.  Georgia continued its surveying and division of the Cherokee lands through the final “1832 Land and Gold Lotteries.”  President Jackson utilized the U.S. Army, forcing the “removal of the Cherokees in what we now know as the shameful “Trail of Tears,” freeing up desirable land in Georgia.

Land speculation in the lotteries was common, many lots were sold sight-unseen by the winners for other lots or for gold. Real estate agents, individual citizens and even unscrupulous lottery officials attempted to secure promising gold belt lots or valuable Cherokee plantation lots. During the 1832 Lottery alone, some 85,000 people competed for 18,309 land lots to be given away, and at least 133,000 people competed for 35,000 gold belt lots to be given away.

1832 georgia grant 1832 Georgia land grant

To read more about this land lottery system, click here.

Posted in Cherokee, Creek | 2 Comments

The Mouthbow – Making Music on a Weapon

obu man mouthbow

Obu man playing the mouthbow

Do you know what a mouthbow is?  It’s believed to be the oldest stringed instrument in the world.  It’s found in many indigenous cultures around the world.  A French cave painting about 15,000 years old shows an individual dancing toward several buffalo while playing something that looks like a mouthbow.

Mouthbows probably derived from hunting bows.  Someone discovered they were good for more than hunting, made noise, and an artistic spark was ignited in the music lover’s soul.

The mouthbow, also called a musical bow, is a simple string musical instrument that consists of a string supported by a flexible stick 1.5 to 10 feet (0.5 to 3 m) long, and strung end to end with a taut cord. Usually made out of wood. Often, it is a normal archery bow used for music rather than as a weapon

In the US, the mouthbow may have been introduced by African slaves.  Today it’s primarily found in Appalachia.

The usual way to make the bow sound is to pluck the string, although sometimes a subsidiary bow is used to scrape the string, much as on a violin although some sound when struck with a thin stick. Unlike string instruments used in classical music, however, they do not have a built-in resonator, although resonators may be made to work with the bow in a number of ways.

The most usual type of resonator consists of a gourd attached to the back of the string bearer. The bow may also be stood in a pit or gourd on the ground, or one end of it may be partially placed in the mouth. This last method allows the size of the resonator to be varied as the instrument is played, thus allowing a melody to be heard consisting of the notes resonating in the player’s mouth. As well as these various forms of resonators, the bow is frequently played without a resonator at all.

The musical bow is generally played on its own, as a solo instrument, although it is sometimes played, amplified, as part of an ensemble in Appalachian old-time music.

Probably the most well-known artist to use the mouthbow is Buffy Sainte-Marie, an Academy Award winning Canadian First Nations musician, composer, artist, educator and social activist, born on the Cree Indian Reserve in Saskatchewan.

Buffy has created a website about the mouthbow including where to purchase one.  However, my favorite mouthbow site is Buffy’s blog where you can see a video of her performing using the mouthbow and singing Cripple Creek.

Want to make one?  Here’s a link to construct an Appalachian mouthbow and some tips on care and feeding.


Posted in Cree | 1 Comment


jeddore lighthouse

Sometimes a surname is associated exclusively with Native people.  When you see that surname, you immediately know where it, and the family, came from.  This is the case with the Jeddore surname.

Jeddore is a L’nu (Mi’kmaq) surname, that has also led to placenames in the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador.

Locations in Nova Scotia that include the Jeddore name are East Jeddore, West Jeddore, Jeddore Oyster Pond and Head of Jeddore.  In Newfoundland and Labrador, we find Jeddore Lake.  The lighthouse photo is at Jeddore, Nova Scotia and was taken by W.R. MacAskill.

The earliest instance of the surname Jeddore known to date is Kji-Saqamaw We’jitu Isidore, (circa 1656-1769). (Saqamaw means “Chief”; Kji-Saqamaw means “Grand Chief”).

In personal communications between Joseph Cope and Harry Piers of the Nova Scotia Museum in 1914, we discover the following information about We’jitu Isidore.

“We’jitu Isidore, (ca. 1656 – ca. 1769) was a Kji-Saqamaw (“grand chief”) of the Mi’kmaq of the provinces of New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia and Quebec.

We’jitu “was a great Indian who died, it is said, at the age of 113 years. In his young days he saw a vision, and afterwards became the most powerful person in the tribe (a Kinap, with great physical strength). [He] made the men of his tribe great in athletic sports, so that they won from men of other tribes, in competitions. His camping ground was on the east side of First Dartmouth Lake, about half way or so up the lake. [The] name We’jitu apparently related to Isidore and the Indians Jeddore were descendents of his. Noel Jeddore of Halifax [?] was his grandson.”

The contemporary surname Isidore may also be related to Kji-Saqamaw We’jitu Isidore.

People commonly known by their family name Jeddore (in rare instances written as Jedor(e), Ledor(e), Geodol, Gietol and Gadole, include:

  • Noel Jeddore (1810 – 1898)
  • Joseph Jeddore (Abt. 1866 – April 11, 1956)
  • John Denny Jeddore (August 1887 – October 14, 1953)
  • Peter Jeddore (May 9, 1892 – May 18, 1970)
  • Saqamaw Noel Jeddore  (December 18, 1865 – May 14, 1944)
  • Victor Jeddore (August 11, 1907 – July 7, 1977)
  • Lawrence Jeddore (November 4, 1922 – 1998)

The National Museum of the American Indian includes a photo of Noel (Joseph) Jeddore (1865-1944) originally from the Conne River Reserve, Nova Scotia.

Noel Joseph Jeddore (December 18, 1865 – May 14, 1944) was Saqamaw at Miawpukek (Conne River) from July 26, 1919 until he was forced into exile to Eskasoni, Nova Scotia, in 1924. He was born at Indian Point, Baie d’Espoir and he died at Eskasoni.

He was known as Saqamaw Geodol to the Mi’kmaq of Miawpukek. “The second chief is Geodol – called in English, Noel Jeddore – who represented Olibia in his absence. Geodol is the owner of one of the two cows on the Reservation, and his brother possesses the second”.

During his leadership the position of Saqamaw within the Mi’kmaw community had become mostly that of a prayer leader, instead of the traditional political and settler of disputes, within the community. In 1923, according to an unpublished document written by his grandson John Nicholas Jeddore, some local residents caused serious misunderstanding between Saqamaw Geodol and the priest of the day, Father Stanislaus St. Croix. Saqamaw Geodol was forced into exile the following year. He never returned to Miawpukek.

Noel’s son, Peter Francis Jeddore followed in the footsteps of his father.  Peter Francis Jeddore (May 9, 1892 – May 18, 1970), (Saqamaw Piel) was the fourth child of Noel Jeddore, (Saqamaw Geodol). Accepted by the Mi’kmaq of Miawpukek as Saqamaw, although never “officially appointed” as such, he served his people from 1954 until his death in 1971. He made many prominent public defenses of the Miawpukek Mi’kmaq’s rights to land and resources.  Saqamaw Piel also served overseas with the Royal Newfoundland Regiment during World War I, first in the 9th Regiment, later in the British 29th Division.

Posted in Micmac | Leave a comment

James Manly, an Indian born at Edenton

State of North Carolina, Craven County } To the Worshipfull, the Justices of Craven County

The Petition of James Manly an Indian humbly represents to your Honor that he was free born at Edenton and that he never has been Guilty of any Action by which his Freedom can be forfeited by any of the Laws of this or any other of the United States.

Your Petitioner further begs leave to inform your Worships that he has lived some Time past at Broad Creek and that on or about the [blank] Day of [blank] a Certain John Garland came to the dwelling House of the said James Manly and forcibly drove him away and sold him as a Slave to Colonel Levi Dawson for the Consideration of one hundred pounds Specie. Wherefore as your Petitioner is a Subject of this States; and under the present happy Constitution humbly moves that this worshipfull Court will pass an Order for liberating or Setting him free from the service of Colonel Levi Dawson aforesaid and restore him to his Freedom And as in Duty bound your Petitioner will ever pray.    Jas. Cooke Atty. For the Petitioner.

[On back.] James Manlys Petition  December Term 1782. James Gatlin & Levi Dawson  Read and Granted The Petitioner set Free   Chrisr. Neales C.C.

Thank you to Lisa Y. Henderson for finding and publishing this record.

james manley 1790

In the 1790 census in Craven County, NC, above, James Manley was listed with 1 “other free” in his household, so apparently he lived alone.  There are no other Manley families in Craven County that are classified as “other free.”  There are no white Manley families either.

In 1800, James Manly is again a household of 1 but lived in Beaufort County, NC and is listed as “free colored.”  There are no other Manly families in Beaufort County.

James is not found in the 1810 census.  He petitioned the court in 1782 as an adult, so he was born probably well before 1762.  He would have been at least 48 in 1810 and probably significantly older.

Posted in North Carolina | Leave a comment

The French and the Indians

Fur trader Canada 1777

Have you ever wondered why so many Indians carry French surnames?  This is the case all across the US and Canada, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, literally, but very pronounced from New York through the northern Plains states and along the Mississippi River.

The answer lies in the history of the French businesses – and I’m not talking about a few individual trappers, I’m talking about an industry, largely forgotten or ignored by history.  At a time when most people don’t think about any Europeans living beyond the Appalachian Mountains, the French were traversing this country and where there were French, there were many more Indians.

This article, French Entrepreneurship in the Post Colonial Fur Trade by B. Pierre Lebeau is quite enlightening.  Enjoy!

Hat tip to Marie for this article.

Posted in French | Leave a comment

Red Fox James, Blackfoot, Indian Advocate

Red Fox 1915

Red Fox James, a Blackfoot Indian, rode horseback from state to state seeking approval for a day to honor Indians. On Dec. 14, 1915, he presented the endorsements of 24 state governments at the White House. There is no record, however, of such a national day being proclaimed. (Library of Congress)

1915. “Indians, American. Red Fox James at White House.” With the State, War and Navy building as backdrop. Harris & Ewing glass negative.


One of the very proponents of an American Indian Day was Dr. Arthur C. Parker, a Seneca Indian, who was the director of the Museum of Arts and Science in Rochester, N.Y. He persuaded the Boy Scouts of America to set aside a day for the “First Americans” and for three years they adopted such a day.

In 1915, the annual Congress of the American Indian Association meeting in Lawrence, Kans., formally approved a plan concerning American Indian Day. It directed its president, Rev. Sherman Coolidge, an Arapahoe, to call upon the country to observe such a day. Coolidge issued a proclamation on Sept. 28, 1915, which declared the second Saturday of each May as an American Indian Day and contained the first formal appeal for recognition of Indians as citizens.  Indians were recognized as American citizens in 1924.

The first American Indian Day in a state was declared on the second Saturday in May 1916 by the governor of New York. Several states celebrate the fourth Friday in September. In Illinois, for example, legislators enacted such a day in 1919. Presently, several states have designated Columbus Day as Native American Day, but it continues to be a day we observe without any recognition as a national legal holiday.

Native Americans never receivedt a day, per se, but in 1990, President George H. W. Bush approved a joint resolution designating November 1990 “National American Indian Heritage Month.”

In 2011, President Barack Obama issued a proclamation as well.

“From the Aleutian Islands to the Florida Everglades, American Indians and Alaska Natives have contributed immensely to our country’s heritage. During National Native American Heritage Month, we commemorate their enduring achievements and reaffirm the vital role American Indians and Alaska Natives play in enriching the character of our Nation.

THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States do hereby proclaim November 2011 as National Native American Heritage Month. I call upon all Americans to commemorate this month with appropriate programs and activities, and to celebrate November 25, 2011, as Native American Heritage Day.

Posted in Blackfoot | 4 Comments

The Indians of Lawrence Co., PA

Edenburg Lawrence co paSometimes old history books, especially those published in the 1800s whose authors had access to people who memories extended back into the previous century can be goldmines.  While researching the Scotch-Irish in Lawrence County, PA, I found the following information about the original Native people who inhabited that region.

History of Lawrence Co., Pa. 1770-1877 by S.W. and P.A. Durant


Evidences of the ancient or pre-historic people, sometimes known as the “Mound Builders,” are not altogether wanting in Lawrence county, though they are not found as plentifully as in many other portions of the State. The most noted example of their work is undoubtedly the well-known mound situated near the village of Edenburg, and also near the site of the famous Indian village of Kush-kush-kee.*

*See History of Mahoning township.

The traditions of the Lenni Lenape and Mengwe nations, whom the first Europeans found inhabiting the vast region stretching from the Atlantic ocean and the St. Lawrence river to the Mississippi valley and southward to the Carolinas and the Ohio river, point unmistakably to this mysterious people, who rose and flourished; who built extensive cities and gigantic fortifications; who worked the wonderful copper deposits of Lake Superior, and who manufactured millions of the elaborate stone implements of war and husbandry still found upon the hills of the Ohio, the grand prairies of the West and the broad savannahs of the South.

The Indian nations had a tradition that their ancestors came from the far western wilds of the continent many centuries ago, and crossing the great river Mississippi, which they called Namoesi-sipu, or river of fish, fell upon this [p. 14] ancient people, and after many years of bloody and terrific warfare succeeded in driving the shattered remnant of the once powerful race toward the vast region of the South and West. After this great conquest, the Lenni Lenape and the Mengwe, who had joined hands against the Allegewi, as the conquered people were called, divided the country between them; the Lenape or Delawares, as they were known by the English, taking the region lying along the Ohio–the famed “La Belle Riviere” of the French, and the Mengwe, the Iroquois, or Six Nations, or Mingoes of the French and English, choosing the region lying around the great lakes and on both sides of the St. Lawrence river.

These nations eventually grew hostile to each other, and in the wars which succeeded, the Lenape, were finally reduced from their former high estate to the condition of women, by the haughty Six Nations, whom De Witt Clinton called the “Romans of America.” The first knowledge obtained by white men of this region was undoubtedly that of the French traders and explorers who pushed into the wilderness, and even penetrated as far as the west end of Lake Superior as early as 1616.

Their missionaries had established themselves at various points in the vicinity of the northwestern lakes by the middle of the seventeenth century, and their great discoverer, the Chevalier De LaSalle, had penetrated from the head of Lake Michigan to the mouth of the Mississippi river in 1682.

The date of their first appearance within the bounds of the present county of Lawrence cannot be certainly determined. They had two routes from Lake Erie to the Ohio river–one by way of Erie (Presq’ isle), French creek, and the Allegheny river, by which route came Captain Contrecoeur, in the Spring of 1754, when on his way to the capture of “the forks,” as the site of Pittsburgh was then called. The other route was from Presq’ isle, over the dividing ridge, and down the Shenango or Mahoning and Beaver rivers. They probably began to visit this region about 1731, for the colonies of Pennsylvania, New York, and Virginia were complaining of their encroachments in that year. The dominant Indian nation in northwestern Pennsylvania, at the date of their advent, was the Senecas; but there seems to have been several different tribes of the Senecas, the Delawares, the Shawanese, and, perhaps, others intermingled. The Neshannock creek is said to have been named by the Delawares, and the Shenango by the Senecas. The Cornplanter tribe of the Seneca nation (called after one of their chiefs), was the most powerful and numerous one in this region, among the lesser organizations. Their principal village was on the Allegheny river.

The first white man who visited this region, from the English colonies, was Christopher Gist, the friend and companion of Washington, who went in the interests of the Ohio Land Company, on a visit of exploration, as far west as the Miami, in 1750. He did not, however, visit the territory of Lawrence county, but, probably, passed down the right bank of the Ohio river.

It is probable that the first white man from “beyond the mountains” who visited the territory now comprised within the limits of Lawrence county, was Christian Frederick Post,* who was sent on a peace mission to the western Indians, in the year 1758, in advance of General Forbes’ army, then on its way toward Fort Duquesne. He arrived, according to his journal, at Kush-kush-kee, the Indian capital of King Beaver, on the 12th of August. This was twelve years previous to the settlement made by the Moravian missionaries, Zeisberger and Senseman, at what is now Moravia station.

*A Moravian Missionary.

Whether “King Beaver” was identical with the chief Pack-an-ka, who ruled in the valley afterwards, we cannot know, but it is at least probable. On the 17th of August a grand council was held. All the chiefs and rulers, for many miles around, were present, and there was also a French captain, and fifteen men on the ground. Among the celebrated kings and chiefs present, were King Beaver, King Shingis, Teedy-us-kung, and Delaware George, of the Delawares, and there was present, also, a party of Shawanese and Mingoes.

This French captain and detachment of soldiers, may, very probably, have thrown up the fortification described in the history of Taylor township, at old Moravia village. The times were precarious, and the French knew not at what moment the treacherous savages would turn against them. From that date, until the Spring of 1770, we have little or no account of this region. Hunters, traders, and trappers probably visited it, but the savages were undisturbed in their possessions.

In April, 1770, two Moravian missionaries, Zeisberger and Senseman, came into the valley of the Beaver river, by invitation of the principal chief or king, the venerable Pack-an-ka. These missionaries had attempted to establish a mission at the mouth of the Tionesta creek, but meeting with little encouragement, and not liking the rough country, they very gladly accepted the chief’s offer of land and protection, and commenced a settlement a little west of where the old village or hamlet of Moravia now stands, but in the course of a few weeks, finding the location too low, and subject to malaria, they crossed the river and made their permanent settlement on the high bluff a little northwest from the present Moravia station, on the E. and P. railway. The mission remained and flourished for nearly three years, when for some reason they were persuaded to move farther west, and, accordingly, they destroyed their church building, and removed to a point on the upper waters of the Muskingum, in the present State of Ohio, in 1773. The largest village of the Indians, who appeared to have been mostly Delawares, was no doubt at Kush-kush-kee, which Post describes as being composed of four separate towns, and containing about “ninety houses, and two hundred able warriors.” Pack-an-ka was the head chief, or king, and his capital, called New Kas-kas-kunk, was located on the ground where New Castle now stands. Another town called Old Kas-kas-kunk, was located near the mouth of the Mahoning river. The principal chief, orator, and statesman, under King Pack-an-ka, was called Glik-ik-an, who was afterwards converted to Christianity by the Moravians, and finally perished in the massacre at the mission towns in Ohio, in March, 1782. The king was never converted, but nevertheless remained the steadfast friend of the missionaries so long as they remained in the Beaver valley.

History of Mahoning Township


There are various opinions as to the location of this village. Some authorities locate it at the mouth of the Mahoning, on the Big Beaver, and others still farther down, between that and Moravia. But the evidence points strongly to the site of Edenburg as the location of this once famous Indian town. It is at least certain there was a village where Edenburg stands, which was divided into two parts, one a short distance farther up the river than the other, and in the memory of the “oldest inhabitants” the Indians who lived here were called “Kush-kush-kians.” But compara- [p. 80]tively few years ago the old war-post stood near the village of Edenburg, or in the edge of it, with the marks of the tomahawks still upon it, looking almost as fresh as when the Indians first circled around it and performed their grotesque war-dance, their painted visages showing hideously in the fitful light of the fire. Then another reason for the location of their village here was the peculiar beauty of the place, and the richness of the soil, for the savage, let it be understood, was a connoisseur in choosing advantages, both of beauty and adaptability to cultivation. The place, also, was one calculated for easy defense, having, beside the river and hills, a swamp on either side, while the village itself was on higher ground than the marshy land around it–on an island as it were.

In the vicinity have been picked up gun-flints, oxydized bullets, flattened and battered; old gun-locks and gun-barrels, bayonets, etc., which would seem to indicate that severe fighting occurred here at some period. Many bones have also been found. Near the town was a burial ground, containing among other relics an interesting mound, originally some fifty feet in circumference, and about six feet high. This mound was examined some years since, and found to contain several layers of human skeletons. Flag-stones were placed in regular order around the bodies, and the whole covered with earth. Nearby were quite a large number of bodies buried separately. Large numbers of flint chips and arrow-heads have been picked up in the vicinity. The location of the village was on the south side of the Mahoning, the principal part being below the present village of Edenburg, and close to the river.

Christian Frederick Post, the Moravian missionary, who visited this region in 1758, in advance of Forbes’ army, says the town contained at that time ninety houses, and two hundred able warriors. Post persuaded the principal chief, Pak-an-ke, or King Beaver, to visit the “Forks,” now Pittsburgh, where a great conference was held on the ground where Allegheny City now stands. Twelve years later, in 1770, at the request of Pak-an-ke, the Moravians removed from their settlement at Lanunak-hannuk, on the Allegheny river, and settled on the Big Beaver, five miles below New Castle, near the present site of Moravia station.

Here they remained for two years, instructing the Indians in the principles of the Christian religion, establishing schools, and introducing agricultural pursuits. During this time they had constant intercourse with the Indians at Kush-kush-kee, and converted many of them to Christianity, among the number a distinguished warrior and orator named Glik-kik-an, who belonged to one of the Delaware or Lenape tribes. They failed, however, to make any impression on the grey-haired old chief Pak-an-ke, though he scrupulously protected the missionaries from all harm by hostile Indians, and was their constant friend.

The Indians did not all leave their beautiful home until sometime after the country was settled by the whites, and the wonder is not great, because Kush-kush-kee, with its beautiful valley and silvery stream, together with the “hills piled on hills,” and the grand old forest, had long been their abiding place.

History of Mercer County

The History of Mercer County, which borders Lawrence County, adds this:

After the Mound Builders, who stopped building mounds between 1542 and 1650, the next group of Indians that claimed control of the Mercer County region is the Erie Indians, or the Cat Nation (Eriehronon). The Erie controlled this region during the early and middle 1600’s.  In 1656, the Iroquois Confederation wiped out the Erie Indians as a tribe. We know very little about these Indians, as they were destroyed before Europeans had advanced far enough inland to meet directly with them. It is important to note that the destruction of a tribe of Indians did not mean the death of all men, women, and children.

Trade with Europe brought on the war between the Eriehronon and the Iroquois. The Iroquois wanted a monopoly of trade with the Europeans. They would trade for European weapons and the sup­plies to use the guns they had gained. This meant they needed a great quantity of trading goods. These goods were primarily animal pelts. To gather more pelts these Iroquois started to range farther than their traditional hunting and trapping grounds, intruding on the lands of other tribes. A war soon broke out between the powerful Iroquois and the Erie tribe. This war saw European weapons used against inferior, Neolithic, and traditional weapons.

From that point on, after 1656, the area that became Mercer County was under Iroquois control and was used for a hunting preserve. It was sparsely populated for the better part of a century. Hunting and trapping parties visited and it was a main crossing ground of Indian paths.

By 1722, without Iroquois approval, some Delaware (Lenni Lenape) and Shawnee started to migrate into this region.

By 1747, the Lenape, with Iroquois permission, continued to migrate into this area. Their capital in the Ohio Valley region was located at Kuskuski near the present day town of New Castle—which until 1849 was the southern border of Mercer County. Along with these Indians a Wyandot tribe of about one hundred fami­lies moved into the surrounding regions, on or near, the Shenango River. Their move westward demon­strates the constant pressure the European Americans were now putting on the American Indians for their lands. The fact that four tribal groups—the Iroquois, the Lenni Lenape, the Shawnee, and the Wyandot—shared an area that had not been populated completely for many years shows the extent of this pressure.

Archaeology Perspective

An archaeology overview  and photos of Lawrence County’s historic artifacts is found at this link.

Posted in Allegewi, Cat Nation, Cornplanter, Delaware, Erie, Eriehronon, Iroquois, Lenape, Lenni Lenape, Mengwe, Mingoes, Mound Builders, Seneca, Shawnee, Six Nations, Wyandot | 4 Comments